adults and children
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Diana Purwati ◽  
Ainol Mardhiah ◽  
Enung Nurhasanah ◽  
Ramli Ramli

The way in which adults learn is distinctive to how children learn, hence Andragogy differs from Pedagogy and so do the implications. Although several studies have attempted to discuss the andragogy and its principles, only few studies investigate its implementation and the practical guidance on how to employ each characteristic in the teaching and learning process. To fill this void, this paper reviews the concept of andragogy and highlights its six characteristics: self-concept, experiences, readiness to learn, motivation, need to know, and problem-centred learning. Employing a narrative review of 18 journal articles from reputable international journals, the study’s findings suggest that the six characteristics/principles of andragogy are applicable in designing teaching and learning materials, teaching activities, and assignments enacted by teachers. Future research is encouraged to delve into the practice of the six characteristics of andragogy in the teaching of English as a foreign language. The differences between adults and children learning and directions for further research in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is also discussed at the end of study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Rosa Ana Alonso Ruiz ◽  
Magdalena Sáenz de Jubera Ocón ◽  
María Ángeles Valdemoros San Emeterio ◽  
Ana Ponce de León Elizondo

Leisure activities shared by grandparents and grandchildren provide important benefits. The health and humanitarian crisis caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has made it necessary to use digital tools to alleviate the lack of contact between adults and children. This paper had as its aim to identify the digital leisure shared by grandparents and their pre-adolescent grandchildren (10-12 years old) before and during the pandemic, as well as its contribution to intergenerational well-being from a holistic paradigm, ultimately aiming to determine whether that digital leisure constitutes an experience of human development for young and old people alike. The sample was made up of 153 grandparents of 10-to-12-year-old children living in the north of Spain. Alongside the use of an ad hoc questionnaire, descriptive and inferential analyses were carried out. Most intergenerational leisure activities ceased to be performed during the lockdown, except for those that could be carried out remotely, thanks to information and communication technologies, which ensured the continuity of social and family interactions. Technological connectivity between generations provided greater support to communication and meaningful relationships, additionally facilitating active aging processes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 299-319
Terrin N. Tamati ◽  
David B. Pisoni ◽  
Aaron C. Moberly

Cochlear implants (CIs) represent a significant engineering and medical milestone in the treatment of hearing loss for both adults and children. In this review, we provide a brief overview of CI technology, describe the benefits that CIs can provide to adults and children who receive them, and discuss the specific limitations and issues faced by CI users. We emphasize the relevance of CIs to the linguistics community by demonstrating how CIs successfully provide access to spoken language. Furthermore, CI research can inform our basic understanding of spoken word recognition in adults and spoken language development in children. Linguistics research can also help us address the major clinical issue of outcome variability and motivate the development of new clinical tools to assess the unique challenges of adults and children with CIs, as well as novel interventions for individuals with poor outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 864
Urszula Abramczyk ◽  
Maciej Nowaczyński ◽  
Adam Słomczyński ◽  
Piotr Wojnicz ◽  
Piotr Zatyka ◽  

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related major health consequences involve the lungs, a growing body of evidence indicates that COVID-19 is not inert to the pancreas either. This review presents a summary of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pancreatic dysfunction during the course of COVID-19, the comparison of the effects of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pancreatic function, and a summary of how drugs used in COVID-19 treatment may affect this organ. It appears that diabetes is not only a condition that predisposes a patient to suffer from more severe COVID-19, but it may also develop as a consequence of infection with this virus. Some SARS-CoV-2 inpatients experience acute pancreatitis due to direct infection of the tissue with the virus or due to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) accompanied by elevated levels of amylase and lipase. There are also reports that reveal a relationship between the development and treatment of pancreatic cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection. It has been postulated that evaluation of pancreatic function should be increased in post-COVID-19 patients, both adults and children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Julie Niemann Holm-Jacobsen ◽  
Caspar Bundgaard-Nielsen ◽  
Louise Søndergaard Rold ◽  
Ann-Maria Jensen ◽  
Shakil Shakar ◽  

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic since its outbreak in Wuhan, 2019. Virus transmission primarily occurs through close contact, respiratory droplets, and aerosol particles. However, since SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in fecal and rectal samples from infected individuals, the fecal-oral route has been suggested as another potential route of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical implications of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding in Danish COVID-19 patients.Methods: Hospitalized and non-hospitalized adults and children who were recently tested with a pharyngeal COVID-19 test, were included in the study. A rectal swab was collected from all participants. Hospitalized adults and COVID-19 positive children were followed with both pharyngeal and rectal swabs until two consecutive negative results were obtained. RT-qPCR targeting the envelope gene was used to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the samples. Demographic, medical, and biochemical information was obtained through questionnaires and medical records.Results: Twenty-eight of 52 (53.8%) COVID-19 positive adults and children were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in rectal swabs. Seven of the rectal positive participants were followed for more than 6 days. Two of these (28.6%) continued to test positive in their rectal swabs for up to 29 days after the pharyngeal swabs had turned negative. Hospitalized rectal positive and rectal negative adults were comparable regarding demographic, medical, and biochemical information. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the severity of the disease among the two groups.Conclusions: We provided evidence of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding in Danish COVID-19 patients. The clinical importance of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding appears to be minimal.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261897
Marlene Glatz ◽  
Regina Riedl ◽  
Wilfried Glatz ◽  
Mona Schneider ◽  
Andreas Wedrich ◽  

Purpose To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in a Central European country. The findings may have implications for the planning of further research and development of therapies in order to prevent blindness. Setting Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Graz, Austria. Design Retrospective, epidemiological study. Methods The database of the Main Confederation of Austrian Social Insurances was searched for patients with visual impairment, legal blindness or deaf-blindness. This database gathers data from patients of all insurance providers in the country who receive care due to visual impairment and blindness. To determine the prevalence of these conditions, the number of all entries recorded in February 2019 was evaluated. Additionally, all new entries between (January 1st,) 2017, and (December 31st,) 2018, were analysed for distinct characteristics, such as sex, the cause of blindness/visual impairment, and age. Since health care allowances can provide a considerable source of income (459.90€-936.90€ per month), good coverage of practically all patients who are blind and visually impaired in the country can be assumed. Results On February 2nd, 2019, 17,730 patients with visual impairments, blindness or deaf-blindness were registered in Austria, resulting in a prevalence of these diagnoses of 0.2% in the country. During the observational period from 2017 to 2018, 4040 persons met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 2877 were female (65.3%), and 1527 were male (34.7%). The mean age was 75.7 ± 18.0 years (median 82). Most patients (n = 3675, 83.4%) were of retirement age, while 729 (16.6%) were working-age adults or minors. In total, an incidence of 25.0 (95% confidence limit (CL) 24.3–25.8) per 100,000 person-years was observed from 2017 to 2018. A higher incidence was observed for females (32.2, 95% CL 31.0–33.3) than for males (17.7, 95% CL 16.8–18.5). Incidences where higher for males in lower age groups (e.g. 10–14 years: rate ratio RR = 2.7, 95% CL 1.1–6.8), and higher for females in higher age groups (e.g. 70–74 years: RR = 0.6, 95% CL 0.5–0.8). In total, the most frequent diagnoses were macular degeneration (1075 persons, 24.4%), other retinal disorders (493 persons, 11.2%) and inherited retinal and choroidal diseases (IRDs) (186 persons, 4.2%). Persons with IRDs were significantly younger compared to persons with macular degeneration or retinal disorders (IRDs: median 57, range 2–96 vs 83, 5–98 and 82, 1–98 years, p<0.001). For persons of retirement age, macular degeneration, other retinal disorders and glaucoma were the three most frequent diagnoses. In contrast, among working-aged adults and children, IRDs were the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness (103 persons, 14.1%). Conclusion These data show that IRDs are the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in working-aged persons and children in Austria. Thus, these findings suggest to draw attention to enhance further research in the fields of emerging therapies for IRDs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (163) ◽  
pp. 210074
Paolo B. Dominelli ◽  
Yannick Molgat-Seon

In this review, we detail how the pulmonary system's response to exercise is impacted by both sex and gender in healthy humans across the lifespan. First, the rationale for why sex and gender differences should be considered is explored, and then anatomical differences are highlighted, namely that females typically have smaller lungs and airways than males. Thereafter, we describe how these anatomical differences can impact functional aspects such as respiratory muscle energetics and activation, mechanical ventilatory constraints, diaphragm fatigue, and pulmonary gas exchange in healthy adults and children. Finally, we detail how gender can impact the pulmonary response to exercise.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zeming Zhou ◽  
Yuanrui Gu ◽  
Hong Zheng ◽  
Shiguo Li ◽  
Liang Xu ◽  

Background: There have been marked advances in devices such as Amplatzer Duct Occluder II (ADO-II) or vascular plug through 5Fr delivery sheath for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the past five decades, making it possible for cardiologists to deliver occluders via different approaches. However, comparisons of these different approaches have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to summarize and compare the advantages of different approaches for PDA closure, and to guide clinical strategies.Methods: This retrospective study included all patients undergoing transcatheter closure of PDA from 2019 to 2020. Patients were matched by 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM). The retrograde femoral artery approach (FAA) and simple vein approach (SVA) groups were compared with the conventional arteriovenous approach (CAA).Results: The average age of the 476 patients was 21.05 ± 21.15 years. Their average weight was 38.23 ± 24.1 kg and average height was 130.14 ± 34.45 cm. The mean diameter of the PDA was 4.29 ± 2.25 mm. There were 127 men and 349 women, comprising 205 adults and 271 children. Among them, 197 patients underwent CAA, 223 underwent SVA, and 56 underwent retrograde FAA. The diameter in the FAA group was smaller than that in the other two groups, but was similar in adults and children. In the PSM comparison of CAA and SVA, 136 patients with CAA and 136 patients with SVA were recruited. Simple vein approach was associated with markedly reduced length of hospital stay, length of operation, and contrast medium usage as compared with CAA (all P &lt; 0.05). In the PSM comparison of FAA and CAA, 30 patients with CAA and 30 patients with FAA were recruited. The operation duration was longer in the CAA than in the FAA group. There were no significant differences in postoperative complications among groups.Conclusion: Patent ductus arteriosus closure by using the SVA and FAA is safe and effective, and has certain advantages in some respects as compared with CAA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Mariana Guimarães ◽  
Maria Vertzoni ◽  
Nikoletta Fotaki

AbstractThis study aimed to build a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model coupled with age-appropriate in vitro dissolution data to describe drug performance in adults and pediatric patients. Montelukast sodium was chosen as a model drug. Two case studies were investigated: case study 1 focused on the description of formulation performance from adults to children; case study 2 focused on the description of the impact of medicine co-administration with vehicles on drug exposure in infants. The PBPK model for adults and pediatric patients was developed in Simcyp® v18.2 informed by age-appropriate in vitro dissolution results obtained in a previous study. Oral administration of montelukast was simulated with the ADAM™ model. For case study 1, the developed PBPK model accurately described montelukast exposure in adults and children populations after the administration of montelukast chewable tablets. Two-stage dissolution testing in simulated fasted gastric to intestinal conditions resulted in the best description of in vivo drug performance in adults and children. For case study 2, a good description of in vivo drug performance in infants after medicine co-administration with vehicles was achieved by incorporating in vitro drug dissolution (under simulated fasted gastric to fed intestinal conditions) into a fed state PBPK model with consideration of the in vivo dosing conditions (mixing of formulation with applesauce or formula). The case studies presented demonstrate how a PBPK absorption modelling strategy can facilitate the description of drug performance in the pediatric population to support decision-making and biopharmaceutics understanding during pediatric drug development. Graphical abstract

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