Platelet Count
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260774
Sihao Yu ◽  
Wei Chen ◽  
Zicheng Jiang

Background & aims Platelet count/spleen longest diameter ratio (PSDR) is widely used in clinical practice due to its good performance in predicting esophageal varices (EV). We obtained spleen volume (SV) by magnetic resonance examination, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of platelet count/spleen volume ratio (PSVR) and spleen volume in predicting EV in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis. Methods: This study was a diagnostic accuracy experiment and retrospective, 199 patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis who met the criteria were selected as the research subjects. All patients were collected blood samples in the morning on an empty stomach within 2 days, and related indicators were tested. Within 10 days, they received electronic gastroscopy and abdominal magnetic resonance examination. According to the Child-Pugh score, the patients were divided into groups with or without EV and with or without high-risk esophageal varices (HRV), then statistical analysis of the two groups was performed. Results The area under the curve (AUC) of PSVR in predicting EV or HRV in each group (85.5%-92.6%) was higher than PSDR, SV, spleen diameter, and platelet count. The AUC of PSDR in diagnosing HRV was higher than SV, and the AUC of SV in diagnosing EV was higher than PSDR, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). In Child-Pugh A patients, Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed PSVR could be a predictor of HRV (P<0.05), SV was a reliable predictor of EV (P<0.05). Conclusion PSVR is better than PSDR, spleen diameter, platelet count in predicting EV; in the absence of serological results, SV could be used instead of PSDR. Both can predict EV or HRV of patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 66 (4) ◽  
pp. 480-498
N. M. Ershov ◽  
M. V. Gaskova ◽  
A. V. Pshonkin ◽  
Yu. V. Olshanskaya ◽  
T. V. Konyukhova ◽  

Introduction. Essential thrombocythemia is an extremely rare disorder in childhood. This disease is characterized by a persistent increase in the peripheral blood platelet count, associated with a proliferation of atypical megakaryocytes in the bone marrow.Aim — to analyze the clinical features of the course of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and the response to therapy in pediatric and adolescent patientsMaterials and methods. Thirty-one patients with ET under the age of 21 years were analyzed. All patients were diagnosed with ET in accordance with WHO criteria on the basis of an examination, including assessment of clinical data, laboratory tests (general clinical tests; morphological, genetic, and histological examinations of bone marrow), instrumental studies, and an assessment of response to treatment.Results. The average age of disease onset was 9 years 9 months, with a median of 9 years 6 months. Organomegaly was recorded in 16 (52 %) patients, of whom 6 (37.5 %) had isolated splenomegaly and 6 (37.5 %) had hepatosplenomegaly. Bleeding was noted in 6 (19.4 %) patients with a deep decrease in vWF:RCo (no more than 15 %) and an extreme increase in platelets (PLT) (more than 2000 × 109 /L). Twelve (38.7 %) patients suffered from microcirculation disorders (headaches, dizziness, melalgia), half of them had a platelet count of 1000–2000 × 109 /L, which is comparable to asymptomatic patients. No thrombosis was registered in our group. The JAK2V617F mutation was detected in 3 (9.7 %) patients, a mutation in the CALR gene was found in 9 (29.0 %) of patients, there was a mutation in the MPL gene in one (3.2 %) patient, and in the remaining cases (18 (58.1 %) patients), there was no damage to typical driver genes. Translocation t(12;12) was revealed in 1 (3.2 %) patient. The response to one-component cytoreductive therapy (CR+PR) was found to be quite high in young patients and constituted about 70–80 %. The complete response rate (CR) was as follows, respectively: 42.9 % (3) — to anagrelide therapy (ANA), 47.4 % (9) — to interferon therapy (INF), and 0 % — to hydroxycarbamide (HU). However, HU was not used in the fi rst line of therapy for the children in our group.Conclusion. In the pediatric population, ET patients are dominated by the group of “triple-negative” disease, which somewhat complicates the differential diagnosis with secondary thrombocytosis. Compared to the adult population, the risk of bleeding is higher for pediatric patients, which is associated with the large number of patients with extremely high levels of platelets. In the case of hemorrhagic syndrome development or microcirculatory disorders that cannot be stopped by taking antiplatelet agents, we recommend giving preference to INF and HU as fi rst-line therapy, due to the peculiarities of pharmacokinetics and the potential risk of progression of myelofi brosis during ANA therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yinghao Wang ◽  
Song Wang ◽  
Lili Wang ◽  
Shaohua Bi ◽  
Jian Zhang ◽  

Background: Kasabach–Merritt syndrome (KMS) is characterized by large hemangiomas and persistent thrombocytopenia, which may result in visceral hemorrhage and disseminated intravascular coagulation. This study aimed to evaluate the value of transarterial embolization (TAE) in neonatal KMS patients.Patients and Methods: The clinical course of 11 neonates with KMS who underwent TAE in the Department of Neonatology, Anhui Provincal Children's Hospital, Anhui Medical University, China, were reviewed retrospectively.Results: Eleven neonates with KMS (nine male and two female) were admitted to our hospital between the age of 1 h and 6 days. All were born with progressively enlarged hemangiomas and persistent thrombocytopenia. The largest lesion had its maximum size reached at 15 × 8 × 8 cm. Eight patients had cutaneous hemangiomas (1 right face, one oropharynx, one left upper arm, two back, one left lumbar, one right lower leg, and one right thigh), and three patients had liver hemangiomas. All 11 patients underwent TAE. Nine patients underwent two TAEs, and two patients underwent only one embolization procedure. They all obtained &gt;80% devascularization of their lesions without a major complication. The platelet count increased at 2–5 days after treatment and reached normal count and coagulation profile at 18–28 days after the TAE.Conclusions: TAE is a safe and effective alternative therapy for neonatal KMS patients.

Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 826
Diana Schrick ◽  
Margit Tőkés-Füzesi ◽  
Barbara Réger ◽  
Tihamér Molnár

High rates of thrombosis are present in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Deeper insight into the prothrombotic state is essential to provide the best thromboprophylaxis care. Here, we aimed to explore associations among platelet indices, conventional hemostasis parameters, and viscoelastometry data. This pilot study included patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 21) and age-matched controls (n = 21). Each patient received 100 mg aspirin therapy at the time of blood sampling. Total platelet count, high immature platelet fraction (H-IPF), fibrinogen, D-dimer, Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, von Willebrand factor antigen and von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity, plasminogen, and alpha2-antiplasmin were measured. To monitor the aspirin therapy, a platelet function test from hirudin anticoagulated whole blood was performed using the ASPI test by Multiplate analyser. High on-aspirin platelet reactivity (n = 8) was defined with an AUC > 40 cut-off value by ASPI tests. In addition, in vitro viscoelastometric tests were carried out using a ClotPro analyser in COVID-associated thromboembolic events (n = 8) (p = 0.071) nor the survival rate (p = 0.854) showed associations with high on-aspirin platelet reactivity status. The platelet count (p = 0.03), all subjects. COVID-19 patients presented with higher levels of inflammatory markers, compared with the controls, along with evidence of hypercoagulability by ClotPro. H-IPF (%) was significantly higher among non-survivors (n = 18) compared to survivors (p = 0.011), and a negative correlation (p = 0.002) was found between H-IPF and plasminogen level in the total population. The platelet count was significantly higher among patients with high on-aspirin platelet reactivity (p = 0.03). Neither the ECA-A10 (p = 0.008), and ECA-MCF (p = 0.016) were significantly higher, while the tPA-CFT (p < 0.001) was significantly lower among patients with high on-aspirin platelet reactivity. However, only fibrinogen proved to be an independent predictor of hypofibrinolysis in severe COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, a faster developing, more solid clot formation was observed in aspirin ‘non-responder’ COVID-19 patients. Therefore, an individually tailored thromboprophylaxis is needed to prevent thrombotic complications, particularly in the hypofibrinolytic cluster.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Qicheng Deng ◽  
Qifang Long ◽  
Yanan Liu ◽  
Zhujuan Yang ◽  
Yibei Du ◽  

Abstract Background The mean platelet volume/platelet count ratio (MPV/PC) ratio based on the preoperative peripheral MPV and PCcan be used to predict the prognosis of multiple malignant tumors. Objective To evaluate the prognostic value of MPV/PC in cervical cancer patients. Methods This study enrolled 408 patients who had undergone radical surgery for cervical cancer and evaluated the correlation of MPV/PC with patient prognosis in the primary cohort and validation cohort. Additionally, independent prognostic factors were incorporated to construct the prognostic nomogram, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) value was calculated to analyze the prognostic predictive ability of the nomogram. Results In the primary cohort, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis indicated that the overall survival (OS) for patients with MPV/PC ≤ 0.41 was significantly lower than that in patients with MPV/PC > 0.41. MPV/PC was an independent prognostic factor for resectable cervical cancer patients. Compared with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) or monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR), the AUC values of MPV/PC in predicting the 3- and 5-year survival rates for cervical cancer patients were greater. Similar results were verified in the validation cohort. Subsequently, the nomogram constructed based on MPV/PC, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification and lymphovascular invasion performed well to accurately predict the prognosis of cervical cancer patients. The 3- and 5-year survival rates predicted by the nomogram were highly consistent with the real observations. Similar results were also displayed in the validation cohort. Conclusions MPV/PC may be used as a novel independent prognostic factor for patients with resectable cervical cancer. Compared with the FIGO classification system, the nomogram integrating MPV/PC maybe reliably predict the survival of cervical cancer patients after radical surgery.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Clio Bilotta ◽  
Giulio Perrone ◽  
Valeria Adelfio ◽  
Giovanni Francesco Spatola ◽  
Maria Laura Uzzo ◽  

IntroductionThe World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on March 11, 2020. Two vaccine types were developed using two different technologies: viral vectors and mRNA. Thrombosis is one of the most severe and atypical adverse effects of vaccines. This study aimed to analyze published cases of thrombosis after COVID-19 vaccinations to identify patients’ features, potential pathophysiological mechanisms, timing of appearance of the adverse events, and other critical issues.Materials and MethodsWe performed a systematic electronic search of scientific articles regarding COVID-19 vaccine-related thrombosis and its complications on the PubMed (MEDLINE) database and through manual searches. We selected 10 out of 50 articles from February 1 to May 5, 2021 and performed a descriptive analysis of the adverse events caused by the mRNA-based Pfizer and Moderna vaccines and the adenovirus-based AstraZeneca vaccine.ResultsIn the articles on the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, the sample consisted of three male patients with age heterogeneity. The time from vaccination to admission was ≤3 days in all cases; all patients presented signs of petechiae/purpura at admission, with a low platelet count. In the studies on the AstraZeneca vaccine, the sample consisted of 58 individuals with a high age heterogeneity and a high female prevalence. Symptoms appeared around the ninth day, and headache was the most common symptom. The platelet count was below the lower limit of the normal range. All patients except one were positive for PF4 antibodies. The cerebral venous sinus was the most affected site. Death was the most prevalent outcome in all studies, except for one study in which most of the patients remained alive.DiscussionVaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is an unknown nosological phenomenon secondary to inoculation with the COVID-19 vaccine. Several hypotheses have been formulated regarding its physiopathological mechanism. Recent studies have assumed a mechanism that is assimilable to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, with protagonist antibodies against the PF4–polyanion complex. Viral DNA has a negative charge and can bind to PF4, causing VITT. New experimental studies have assumed that thrombosis is related to a soluble adenoviral protein spike variant, originating from splicing events, which cause important endothelial inflammatory events, and binding to endothelial cells expressing ACE2.ConclusionFurther studies are needed to better identify VITT’s pathophysiological mechanisms and genetic, demographic, or clinical predisposition of high-risk patients, to investigate the correlation of VITT with the different vaccine types, and to test the significance of the findings.

Peter Joslyn ◽  
Cornelius Rosenbaum ◽  
Andrew G. Chapple ◽  
Asha Heard ◽  
Maria Velez ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 650-654
İbrahim Kale

Objective: We aimed to investigate the predictive value of the first-trimester aspartate aminotransferase/platelet count ratio index (APRI) and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio for intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy (ICP). Material and Methods: The clinical data of patients who admitted to the Obstetrics Department of Umraniye Training and Research Hospital, between 2015-2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The study group consisted of 44 patients with ICP and the control group consisted of randomly selected 92 healthy pregnant women. Results: The two groups were similar in terms of age, BMI, first and third-trimester platelet count and third-trimester hemoglobin level. Patients with ICP had a significantly higher first-trimester APRI and a lower first trimester AST/ALT ratio than the healthy controls (p <0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). According to the ROC analysis, the optimal cut-off value of the APRI to predict ICP was 0.191, with the sensitivity of 0.66 and specificity of 0.66 (AUC: 0,727), and the optimal cut-off value for AST/ALT ratio was 1.07, with the sensitivity of 0.64, and specificity of 0.62 (AUC: 0,681). Conclusion: The first-trimester APRI score and AST/ALT ratio is an easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive tool that may be useful in predicting ICP early.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Po-Chun Chiu ◽  
Amrita Chattopadhyay ◽  
Meng-Chun Wu ◽  
Tzu-Hung Hsiao ◽  
Ching-Heng Lin ◽  

Hypertension has been reported as a major risk factor for diseases such as cardiovascular disease, and associations between platelet activation and risk for hypertension are well-established. However, the exact nature of causality between them remains unclear. In this study, a bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was conducted on 15,996 healthy Taiwanese individuals aged between 30 and 70 years from the Taiwan Biobank, recorded between 2008 and 2015. The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was applied to determine the causal relationship between platelet count and hypertension with single nucleotide polymorphisms as instrumental variables (IVs). Furthermore, to check for pleiotropy and validity of the IVs, sensitivity analyses were performed using the MR-Egger, weighted median and simple median methods. This study provided evidence in support of a positive causal effect of platelet count on the risk of hypertension (odds ratio: 1.149, 95% confidence interval: 1.131–1.578, P &lt; 0.05), using the weighted median method. A significant causal effect of platelet count on hypertension was observed using the IVW method. No pleiotropy was observed. The causal effect of hypertension on platelet count was found to be non-significant. Therefore, the findings from this study provide evidence that higher platelet count may have a significant causal effect on the elevated risk of hypertension for the general population of Taiwan.

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