water contaminants
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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Carresse Gerald ◽  
Boris Deshazo ◽  
Hayden Patterson ◽  
Porché Spence

Abstract Background Third Fork Creek is a historically impaired urban stream that flows through the city of Durham, North Carolina. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) are non-parasitic, soil and aquatic dwelling nematodes that have been used frequently as a biological and ecotoxicity model. We hypothesize that exposure to Third Fork Creek surface water will inhibit the growth and chemotaxis of C. elegans. Using our ring assay model, nematodes were enticed to cross the water samples to reach a bacterial food source which allowed observation of chemotaxis. The total number of nematodes found in the bacterial food source and the middle of the plate with the water source was recorded for 3 days. Results Our findings suggest a reduction in chemotaxis and growth on day three in nematodes exposed to Third Fork Creek water samples when compared to the control (p value < 0.05). These exploratory data provide meaningful insight to the quality of Third Fork Creek located near a Historically Black University. Conclusions Further studies are necessary to elucidate the concentrations of the water contaminants and implications for human health. The relevance of this study lies within the model C. elegans that has been used in a plethora of human diseases and exposure research but can be utilized as an environmental indicator of water quality impairment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 731
Olena V. Moshynets ◽  
Taras P. Baranovskyi ◽  
Olga S. Iungin ◽  
Nadiia P. Kysil ◽  
Larysa O. Metelytsia ◽  

The choice of effective biocides used for routine hospital practice should consider the role of disinfectants in the maintenance and development of local resistome and how they might affect antibiotic resistance gene transfer within the hospital microbial population. Currently, there is little understanding of how different biocides contribute to eDNA release that may contribute to gene transfer and subsequent environmental retention. Here, we investigated how different biocides affect the release of eDNA from mature biofilms of two opportunistic model strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (PA) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (SA) and contribute to the hospital resistome in the form of surface and water contaminants and dust particles. The effect of four groups of biocides, alcohols, hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, and the polymeric biocide polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG-Cl), was evaluated using PA and SA biofilms. Most biocides, except for PHMG-Cl and 70% ethanol, caused substantial eDNA release, and PHMG-Cl was found to block biofilm development when used at concentrations of 0.5% and 0.1%. This might be associated with the formation of DNA–PHMG-Cl complexes as PHMG-Cl is predicted to bind to AT base pairs by molecular docking assays. PHMG-Cl was found to bind high-molecular DNA and plasmid DNA and continued to inactivate DNA on surfaces even after 4 weeks. PHMG-Cl also effectively inactivated biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance gene eDNA released by a pan-drug-resistant Klebsiella strain, which demonstrates the potential of a polymeric biocide as a new surface-active agent to combat the spread of antibiotic resistance in hospital settings.

Chemosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 133548
P.M. Martins ◽  
Bruno Santos ◽  
H. Salazar ◽  
Sónia A.C. Carabineiro ◽  
G. Botelho ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 61-106
Bhupendra Koul ◽  
Anil Kumar Poonia ◽  
Rahul Singh ◽  
Subhash Kajla

2022 ◽  
Shaimah Rinda Sari ◽  
Masayuki Tsushida ◽  
Tetsuya Sato ◽  
Masato Tominaga

Phosphates are well-known groundwater and surface water contaminants, with even modest increases in their concentration contributing to the eutrophication of lakes and coastal waterways and thus potentially harming the environment....

2022 ◽  
Vol 112 (1) ◽  
pp. 88-97
Clare Pace ◽  
Carolina Balazs ◽  
Komal Bangia ◽  
Nicholas Depsky ◽  
Adriana Renteria ◽  

Objectives. To evaluate universal access to clean drinking water by characterizing relationships between community sociodemographics and water contaminants in California domestic well areas (DWAs) and community water systems (CWSs). Methods. We integrated domestic well locations, CWS service boundaries, residential parcels, building footprints, and 2013–2017 American Community Survey data to estimate sociodemographic characteristics for DWAs and CWSs statewide. We derived mean drinking and groundwater contaminant concentrations of arsenic, nitrate, and hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) between 2011 and 2019 and used multivariate models to estimate relationships between sociodemographic variables and contaminant concentrations. Results. We estimated that more than 1.3 million Californians (3.4%) use domestic wells and more than 370 000 Californians rely on drinking water with average contaminant concentrations at or above regulatory standards for 1 or more of the contaminants considered. Higher proportions of people of color were associated with greater drinking water contamination. Conclusions. Poor water quality disproportionately impacts communities of color in California, with the highest estimated arsenic, nitrate, and Cr(VI) concentrations in areas of domestic well use. Domestic well communities must be included in efforts to achieve California’s Human Right to Water. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):88–97. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306561 )

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. 100557
Giani de Vargas Brião ◽  
Meuris Gurgel Carlos da Silva ◽  
Melissa Gurgel Adeodato Vieira ◽  
Khim Hoong Chu

2021 ◽  
Morufu Olalekan Raimi ◽  
Clinton Ifeanyichukwu Ezekwe ◽  
Bowale Abiodun

Background: Groundwater is an important source of drinking water for the indigenous communities of Ebocha-Obrikom. Access to safe drinking water, in particular, is critical to one's health and, by extension, one's income and well-being. Underground wells are the primary supply of drinking water in the Niger Delta, and the groundwater is not always treated before consumption. As a result, water continues to be a vital environmental component that affects both humans and other life forms. Objectives: The aims of the research is to trace the sources and affecting factors of groundwater pollution via statistical and multivariate statistical techniques. Method: The investigation made use of standard analytical procedures. All sampling, conservation, transportation and analysis followed standard procedures described in APHA (2012). To prevent degradation of the organic substances, all obtained samples were transferred to the laboratory, while keeping in an icebox. Results: The study reveals that the greater the number of principal components extracted the greater variation in geochemical composition of the ground waters. It indicated that 34 parameters were distributed into six (6) and nine (9) principal components (PCs) extracted for groundwater samples for both rainy and dry seasons, potentially suggesting the input of different pollutants from different sources. Gas flaring, mineral dissolution/precipitation and anthropogenic input are the main sources of the physicochemical indices and trace elements in the groundwater. Groundwater chemistry is predominantly regulated by natural processes such as dissolution of carbonates, silicates, and evaporates and soil leaching, followed by human activities. Climatic factors and land use types are also important in affecting groundwater chemistry. Conclusion: Greater efforts should be made to safeguard groundwater, which is hampered by geogenic and anthropogenic activities, in order to achieve sustainable groundwater development. As a result, communities are recommended to maintain a groundwater management policy to ensure long-term sustainability. The study is useful for understanding groundwater trace sources in Rivers State's Ebocha-Obrikom districts. Such understanding would enable informed mitigation or eradication of the possible detrimental health consequences of this groundwater, whether through its use as drinking water or indirectly through consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. As a result, determining its primary probable source of pollution (MPSP) is critical since it provides a clearer and more immediate interpretation. Furthermore, the research findings can be used as a reference for groundwater pollution prevention and water resource protection in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

2021 ◽  
Rehan Deshmukh ◽  
Utpal Roy

Developing countries due to socio-economic conditions are more prone to frequent pathogenic outbreaks; inadequate sanitation and water quality monitoring are also responsible for such conditions. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to provide microbiologically safe food/water in order to protect public health. Several flaws in traditional culturing methods have sparked a surge in interest in molecular techniques as a means of improving the efficiency and sensitivity of microbiological food/water quality monitoring. Molecular identification of water contaminants, mainly Escherichia coli, has been extensively used. Several of the molecular-based techniques are based on amplification and detection of nucleic acids. The advantages offered by these PCR-based methods over culture-based techniques are a higher level of specificity, sensitivity, and rapidity. Of late, the development of a biosensor device that is easy to perform, highly sensitive, and selective has the potential to become indispensable in detecting low CFU of pathogenic E. coli in environmental samples. This review seeks to provide a vista of the progress made in the detection of E. coli using nucleic acid-based approaches as part of the microbiological food/water quality monitoring.

Moaaz K. Seliem ◽  
Mohamed Mobarak ◽  
Essam A. Mohamed ◽  
Ali Q. Selim

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