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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Bilal ◽  
F. Abbas ◽  
U. Atique ◽  
M. Hafeez-ur Rehman ◽  
M. Inayat ◽  

Abstract Reports abound on Lernaea parasitizing the brood stock, fingerlings, and marketable-sized culturable freshwater fish species in various parts of the world. We investigated seven small-scale aquaculture farms and how the prevailing Lernaea is impacting them. Randomly seven fish farms were selected to determine the prevalence percentage of lernaeid ectoparasites. Relevant information of the fishponds to estimate the various aspects such as effects of water source and quality, feed, stocking density, treatment used, and weight and length of fish, concerned with Lernaea infestation and prevalence was gathered. The results indicated that Catla catla (F. Hamilton, 1822) showed highest prevalence (41.7%) among the seven fish species, whereas Oreochromis niloticus showed zero. Other five fish species Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cirrhinus cirrhosis, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix showed 13.2%, 8.1%, 7.7%, 7.4%, 0.9% prevalence, respectively. In Royal Fish Farm 84.3% lernaeid infestation was observed, while no parasite was observed in the Vicent’s Chunnian fish farm. The water source, quality, feed, fertilizers, stocking density, water temperature, and potential treatment options displayed varying tendencies among fish farms and prevalence. Depending on the weight and length, the highest prevalence (56.7%, and 66.7%) was observed in 3501-4000 g and 81-90 cm groups. The infestation rate varied in various fish body parts with the dorsal fin the most vulnerable organ and showed 2.3% overall prevalence (while 18.4% contribution within total 12.6% infestation). Out of 147 infected fish samples, 45 were extensively contaminated by Lernaea spread. In conclusion, our findings confirm that Lernaea could pose a considerable threat to marketable fish, and various treatment options should be educated to the farmers to help mitigate the spread and potential losses. Furthermore, Catla catla is more vulnerable to Lernaea infestation (41.7%), so are the fish species being cultured at higher stocking densities.

B M Lozinski ◽  
B Frederick ◽  
Y Li ◽  
M Saqui-Salces ◽  
G C Shurson ◽  

Abstract An experiment was conducted to determine effects of providing drinking water of differing qualities on growth performance and health of nursery pigs. Weanling pigs (n = 450; 150 pigs/group; 10 pigs/pen) were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups consisting of three water sources of varying quality: 1) Water source A containing 1,410 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 1,120 ppm sulfates, and 1,500 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS); 2) Water source B containing 909 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 617 ppm sulfates, and 1,050 ppm TDS; and 3) Water source C containing 235 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 2 ppm sulfates, and 348 ppm TDS. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to their respective water sources for the duration of the study which began at weaning (21 d of age) and ended 40 d later (61 d of age). Individual pig weights were recorded weekly along with feed intake on a pen basis. Occurrences of morbidity and mortality were recorded daily. Subjective fecal scores were assigned on a pen basis and blood samples were used to evaluate blood chemistry, cytokine concentrations, and phagocytic activity. A differential sugar absorption test was used to assess intestinal permeability. Fecal grab samples were used to establish diet digestibility, and drinking behavior was video-recorded to assess pigs’ acceptance of water sources provided. The statistical model considered fixed effects of water source, room, and their interaction with the random effect of pen. A repeated measures analysis was conducted to determine effects of water quality over time. There were no differences (P > 0.440) among water sources in average daily gain (A, 0.46 kg/d; B, 0.46 kg/d; C, 0.47 kg/d) or average daily feed intake (A, 0.68 kg/d; B, 0.69 kg/d; C, 0.71 kg/d). Overall mortality of pigs was 0.44% and did not differ across the three water sources. There were no differences in apparent total tract digestibility of the diet, intestinal permeability, immune parameters, or blood chemistry attributable to quality of water consumed by pigs. Pigs did not show an aversion to the water sources provided, because total time pigs spent at the drinker did not differ (P > 0.750) among water sources on d 1 through 3 of the experiment. These data indicate that the water sources of differing quality studied did not affect growth performance or health of nursery pigs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Carresse Gerald ◽  
Boris Deshazo ◽  
Hayden Patterson ◽  
Porché Spence

Abstract Background Third Fork Creek is a historically impaired urban stream that flows through the city of Durham, North Carolina. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) are non-parasitic, soil and aquatic dwelling nematodes that have been used frequently as a biological and ecotoxicity model. We hypothesize that exposure to Third Fork Creek surface water will inhibit the growth and chemotaxis of C. elegans. Using our ring assay model, nematodes were enticed to cross the water samples to reach a bacterial food source which allowed observation of chemotaxis. The total number of nematodes found in the bacterial food source and the middle of the plate with the water source was recorded for 3 days. Results Our findings suggest a reduction in chemotaxis and growth on day three in nematodes exposed to Third Fork Creek water samples when compared to the control (p value < 0.05). These exploratory data provide meaningful insight to the quality of Third Fork Creek located near a Historically Black University. Conclusions Further studies are necessary to elucidate the concentrations of the water contaminants and implications for human health. The relevance of this study lies within the model C. elegans that has been used in a plethora of human diseases and exposure research but can be utilized as an environmental indicator of water quality impairment.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 211
Lei Hou ◽  
Zhongyuan Zhou ◽  
Ruyan Wang ◽  
Jianxin Li ◽  
Fei Dong ◽  

In recent years, freshwater resource contamination by non-point source pollution has become particularly prominent in China. To control non-point source (NPS) pollution, it is important to estimate NPS pollution exports, identify sources of pollution, and analyze the pollution characteristics. As such, in this study, we established the modified export coefficient model based on rainfall and terrain to investigate the pollution sources and characteristics of non-point source total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) throughout the Huangqian Reservoir watershed—which serves as an important potable water source for the main tributary of the lower Yellow River. The results showed that: (1) In 2018, the non-point source total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads in the Huangqian Reservoir basin were 707.09 t and 114.42 t, respectively. The contribution ratios to TN export were, from high to low, rural life (33.58%), farmland (32.68%), other land use types (20.08%), and livestock and poultry breeding (13.67%). The contribution ratios to TP export were, from high to low, rural life (61.19%), livestock and poultry breeding (21.65%), farmland (12.79%), and other land use types (4.38%). The non-point source pollution primarily originated from the rural life of the water source protection zone. (2) Non-point source TN and TP pollution loads and load intensities showed significantly different spatial distribution patterns throughout the water source protection area. Specifically, their load intensities and loads were the largest in the second-class protected zone, which is the key source area of non-point source pollution. (3) When considering whether to invest in agricultural land fertilizer control or rural domestic sewage, waste, and livestock manure pollution control, the latter is demonstrably more effective. Thus, in addition to putting low-grade control on agricultural fertilizer loss, to rapidly and effectively improve potable water quality, non-point source pollution should, to a larger extent, also be controlled through measures such as establishing household biogas digesters, introducing village sewage treatment plants, and improving the recovery rate of rural domestic garbage. The research results discussed herein provide a theoretical basis for formulating a reasonable and effective protection plan for the Huangqian Reservoir water source and can potentially be used to do the same for other similar freshwater resources.

2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
pp. 91-116
Andreas Riedl ◽  
Yafei Li ◽  
Jon Eugster ◽  
Nina Buchmann ◽  
Werner Eugster

Abstract. Non-rainfall water (NRW), defined here as dew, hoar frost, fog, rime, and water vapour adsorption, might be a relevant water source for ecosystems, especially during summer drought periods. These water inputs are often not considered in ecohydrological studies, because water amounts of NRW events are rather small and therefore difficult to measure. Here we present a novel micro-lysimeter (ML) system and its application which allows us to quantify very small water inputs from NRW during rain-free periods with an unprecedented high accuracy of ±0.25 g, which corresponds to ±0.005 mm water input. This is possible with an improved ML design paired with individual ML calibrations in combination with high-frequency measurements at 3.3 Hz and an efficient low-pass filtering to reduce noise level. With a set of ancillary sensors, the ML system furthermore allows differentiation between different types of NRW inputs, i.e. dew, hoar frost, fog, rime, and the combinations among these, but also additional events when condensation on leaves is less probable, such as water vapour adsorption events. In addition, our ML system design allows one to minimize deviations from natural conditions in terms of canopy and soil temperatures, plant growth, and soil moisture. This is found to be a crucial aspect for obtaining realistic NRW measurements in short-statured grasslands. Soil temperatures were higher in the ML compared to the control, and thus further studies should focus on improving the thermal soil regime of ML. Our ML system has proven to be useful for high-accuracy, long-term measurements of NRW on short-statured vegetation-like grasslands. Measurements with the ML system at a field site in Switzerland showed that NRW input occurred frequently, with 127 events over 12 months with a total NRW input of 15.9 mm. Drainage-water flow of the ML was not measured, and therefore the NRW inputs might be conservative estimates. High average monthly NRW inputs were measured during summer months, suggesting a high ecohydrological relevance of NRW inputs for temperate grasslands.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 262
Hui Guo ◽  
Xiaoyan Wang ◽  
Zecheng Guo ◽  
Siyong Chen

Snow cover is an important water source and even an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Assessing snow phenology and its driving factors in Northeast China will help with comprehensively understanding the role of snow cover in regional water cycle and climate change. This study presents spatiotemporal variations in snow phenology and the relative importance of potential drivers, including climate, geography, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), based on the MODIS snow products across Northeast China from 2001 to 2018. The results indicated that the snow cover days (SCD), snow cover onset dates (SCOD) and snow cover end dates (SCED) all showed obvious latitudinal distribution characteristics. As the latitude gradually increases, SCD becomes longer, SCOD advances and SCED delays. Overall, there is a growing tendency in SCD and a delayed trend in SCED across time. The variations in snow phenology were driven by mean temperature, followed by latitude, while precipitation, aspect and slope all had little effect on the SCD, SCOD and SCED. With decreasing temperature, the SCD and SCED showed upward trends. The mean temperature has negatively correlation with SCD and SCED and positively correlation with SCOD. With increasing latitude, the change rate of the SCD, SCOD and SCED in the whole Northeast China were 10.20 d/degree, −3.82 d/degree and 5.41 d/degree, respectively, and the change rate of snow phenology in forested areas was lower than that in nonforested areas. At the same latitude, the snow phenology for different underlying surfaces varied greatly. The correlations between the snow phenology and NDVI were mainly positive, but weak correlations accounted for a large proportion.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261651
Gabriel J. Bowen ◽  
Jessica S. Guo ◽  
Scott T. Allen

A wide range of hydrological, ecological, environmental, and forensic science applications rely on predictive “isoscape” maps to provide estimates of the hydrogen or oxygen isotopic compositions of environmental water sources. Many water isoscapes have been developed, but few studies have produced isoscapes specifically representing groundwaters. None of these have represented distinct subsurface layers and isotopic variations across them. Here we compiled >6 million well completion records and >27,000 groundwater isotope datapoints to develop a space- and depth-explicit water isoscape for the contiguous United States. This 3-dimensional model shows that vertical isotopic heterogeneity in the subsurface is substantial in some parts of the country and that groundwater isotope delta values often differ from those of coincident precipitation or surface water resources; many of these patterns can be explained by established hydrological and hydrogeological mechanisms. We validate the groundwater isoscape against an independent data set of tap water values and show that the model accurately predicts tap water values in communities known to use groundwater resources. This new approach represents a foundation for further developments and the resulting isoscape should provide improved predictions of water isotope values in systems where groundwater is a known or potential water source.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Ariadi Hazmi ◽  
Maulana Yusup Rosadi ◽  
Reni Desmiarti ◽  
Fusheng Li

Rainwater is a potential source of drinking water, but has various components of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM is a reservoir of potential hazards in drinking water. Therefore, a new method is required to purify rainwater as a drinking water source in terms of DOM aspects. A radio-frequency (RF) treatment system is introduced here to purify source water with a small possibility of contamination. RF is generated by applying a frequency of 1.5 MHz through a glass reactor with a diameter of 2 mm which is wrapped by a 2 mm copper wire. The results demonstrate that UV260 value and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are reduced during RF treatment. DOC was reduced by a lower amount compared to UV260, suggesting the partial transformation of bio-refractory DOM. A fluorescence excitation-emission matrix showed that humic-like substances in rainwater were reduced faster than protein-like ones, indicating that humic-like substances are susceptible to reduction by RF treatment. The results offer information on the use of RF treatment in a rainwater purification process for the production of drinking water.

2022 ◽  
Vol 964 (1) ◽  
pp. 012008
Quang Khai Ha ◽  
Mai Van Le Thi ◽  
Phu Le Vo ◽  
Hong Quan Nguyen ◽  
Abhijit Mukherjee

Abstract Groundwater serves as the major source for drinking water and the only fresh water source in the dry season in Ca Mau province, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. The study is performed to assess groundwater quality in the area. Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI), magnesium hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na%), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI) combined with geostatistical tools were conducted by using groundwater quality data from 400 samples collected from private wells. GWQI values suggest that 7%, 63%, 28%, 2%, 1% of total samples are classified into excellent, good, poor, very poor and unsuitable for drinking water. High Cl and TDS are the main cause of high GWQI values suggesting that saltwater intrusion deteriorates groundwater quality. For irrigation purposes, 4%, 17%, 36%, 43% of total samples classify into Good, Permissible, Doubtful, Unsuitable respectively by Na% indicator; 55.0%, 30.9%, 11.9%, 2.2% of total samples is Excellent, Good, Doubtful and Unsuitable according to SAR, 54% samples are unsuitable by MH index, and all samples are good by PI. This study provides useful information on groundwater quality for various purposes in Ca Mau province, that could help water management and water users to identify the necessary approach for groundwater protection and water-treatment methods before utilising the groundwater source for specific purposes in the study area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 355 ◽  
pp. 02070
Daqing Zhang

Under the background of rapid urbanization and industrialization development, in order to satisfy the increasing demand of residents for domestic water, the establishment of water source protection zone is the most effective way to protect water resources at present. However, the influence on the social and economic development could not be ignored. The article analyzes the influence of the delimitation of water source protection zone on economy such as ecological migration, urban municipal pipe network construction, rural drinking water and urban water supply. The impact on economy like industrial enterprises, agricultural planting, livestock industry, aquaculture, tourist industry were also mentioned. The article triggers the exploration of the way to realize the coordination and sustainable development of economy, society, resources and environment

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