bromus diandrus
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (II) ◽  
Eliseo Sosa-Montes ◽  
Sergio Iban Mendoza-Pedroza ◽  
Andrés Ramos-Velázquez ◽  
Perpetuo Alvarez- Vázquez ◽  
Eusebio Ortega- Jiménez ◽  

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar tres pastos forrajeros, Bromus diandrus, Oplismenus burmannii y Heteropogon contortus, de las subfamilias Pooideae, Pooideae y Panicoideae, respectivamente. Las principales variables respuesta, todas en base seca fueron: cenizas (Cen), proteína cruda (PC), extracto etéreo (EE), carbohidratos solubles (CS), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), contenido celular (CC = 100 - FDN) y digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS). Cada pasto se evaluó por triplicado y una repetición se consideró la unidad experimental. Las medias fueron separadas mediante la prueba de Tukey (p < 0.05). La asociación entre cada par de variables (p < 0.05) se estimó usando el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson (p < 0.05). Los pastos B. diandrus y O. burmannii resultaron con más PC, CC y DIVMS y con menos pared celular o FDN (componente insoluble) que H. contortus. Esto produjo una correlación positiva entre CC y PC (0.751, p < 0.05). Adicionalmente, O. burmannii produjo el valor más alto de Cen y el más bajo de CS, mientras que B. diandrus mostró el valor más bajo de Cen y el más alto de CS. Esto produjo una correlación negativa entre estas dos variables (-0.976, p < 0.01). En conclusión, B. diandrus, mostró mejor composición química y digestibilidad, que los otros dos, por lo que se recomienda este pasto para la nutrición de rumiantes. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 80 (2) ◽  
Georgi Kunev

The current report discusses Bromus diandrus, a new species in the flora of Bulgaria. A concise description of its morphological features with an emphasis on the characters that distinguish it from the already known representatives of Bromus sect. Genea in the country is presented. The newly established locality is characterized floristically and ecologically. The probabilities of the native or alien origin of the studied population are also discussed.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1639
John W. Piltz ◽  
Kristy L. Bailes ◽  
Suzanne P. Boschma ◽  
Leslie A. Weston

Weeds are an increasingly significant issue inhibiting agricultural production worldwide. Forage conservation could form part of an integrated weed management program if ensiling killed weed seeds. In Experiment 1, seeds of five grass (Hordeum spp., Bromus diandrus, Bromus hordeaceum, Lolium rigidum and Vulpia spp.) and two broad-leaved temperate weed species (Echium spp. and Raphanus raphanistrum), that were either untreated, ensiled in pasture (Trifolium subterranean/Lolium rigidum mixture) forage for a minimum of three months, underwent 48 h in sacco digestion in steers or ensiled prior to digestion were tested for germinability and viability. In Experiment 2, seeds of eight tropical weed species (Cenchrus ciliaris, Rumex spp., Bidens pilosa, Sorghum halepense, Urochloa panicaoides, Paspalum dilatatum, Brachiara eruciformis and Choris truncata) were ensiled in Sorghum bicolor forage. In Experiment 3, L. rigidum and R. raphanistrum seeds were ensiled in either Medicago sativa forage wilted to 336.9, 506.5 or 610.7 g/kg dry matter; or in chaff to which water or water plus acid was added at rates to achieve 350, 450 or 550 g/kg dry matter content with lactic plus acetic acid added in the ratio of 3:2 at 80, 45 or 10 g/kg DM, respectively. In Experiment 4, L. rigidum and R. raphanistrum seeds were ensiled in cotton wool to which water or water plus acid was added at the same rates as in Experiment 3. Germinability of all seeds following ensiling was substantially reduced or nil. The extent of the reduction varied with species and experiment. In sacco digestion reduced germinability in Experiment 1, but to a lesser extent than ensiling; while ensiling plus digestion reduced germination rates to 0%.

2021 ◽  
Ashley Grupenhoff ◽  
Nicole Molinari

Abstract Background: California is a global biodiversity hotspot, yet increased urbanization of wildlands, warming temperatures, and invasion of nonnative species pose serious risks to these areas due to an increase in wildfire frequency. Fuel management is a tool for reducing fire risk to neighboring communities and natural resources that involves a two-step process requiring an initial reduction of woody vegetation followed by a repeated control of woody plants and reduction of herbaceous cover. To understand the compositional and structural changes resulting from fuel treatment methods in southern California chaparral, we evaluated the compositional and structural impacts of a recently created fuel break established around the Lake Morena community on the Cleveland National Forest. The area was initially treated with cut and pile burning, then treated with herbicide, and lastly grazed by 1,200 goats. The purpose of this study is to (1) evaluate the compositional and structural differences associated with the initial fuel break, and (2) quantify compositional shifts in herbaceous and woody vegetation caused by goat grazing over time. Results: Plots on fuel breaks and in adjacent wildlands exhibited significantly different species assemblages. Total herbaceous cover (both native and nonnative) was 92 times greater on fuel breaks than in adjacent chaparral-dominated wildlands and native shrub cover was 55.3 times greater in adjacent wildlands than on fuel breaks. Goats had a significant impact on reducing native and nonnative herb cover (87% reduction in cover, 92% reduction in height), but were ineffective at reducing the cover and height of most woody species such as Adenostoma fasciculatum, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Quercus berberidifolia, and Artemisia tridentata. However, goats were found to be effective in controlling nonnative grasses including Bromus diandrus and Bromus madritensis. Conclusion: Initial fuel break creation was effective at reducing wood biomass and height, simultaneously giving rise to an abundance and diversity of native and nonnative herbaceous species. Although targeted goat grazing was successful at reducing herbaceous biomass, it was ineffective at reducing woody biomass which is often one of the most important goals for fuel management in chaparral ecosystems.

2021 ◽  
pp. 67-88
Catherine P.D. Borger ◽  
Joel Torra ◽  
Aritz Royo-Esnal ◽  
Laura Davies ◽  
George Newcombe

Insects ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 720 ◽  
María Villa ◽  
Isabel Rodrigues ◽  
Paula Baptista ◽  
Alberto Fereres ◽  
José Alberto Pereira

The Aphrophoridae family contains important vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, a serious bacterial plant disease. In olive orchards, nymphs usually feed on the ground-cover vegetation. However, detailed information about their populations and host/non-host plants in some regions threatened by Xylella, such as the northeast of Portugal, is very limited. The goal of our work was to identify the vector species, nymphal development period, and their host and non-host herbaceous plants in olive orchards from northeastern Portugal. Ground-cover plant species hosting or not hosting nymphs were identified during the spring of 2017 to 2019 in olive orchards. Nymphal development period, nymph aggregation, and nymph’s preferred feeding height of the ground-cover plants were recorded. The most abundant Aphrophoridae species was Philaenus spumarius followed by Neophilaenus sp. Nymphs developed from April to early May and showed a low number of individuals per foam (generally between one and three). They preferred the middle part of the plants. Philaenus spumarius feeds preferentially on Asteraceae and Fabaceae, and Neophilaenus sp. on Poaceae. Some abundant plants, such as Bromus diandrus, Astragalus pelecinus, Chrysanthemum segetum, Trifolium spp., Caryophyllaceae, and Brassicaceae, were barely colonized by Aphrophoridae nymphs. This knowledge is essential for the selection of the species composition of ground-cover vegetation to minimize the presence of vectors of X. fastidiosa in olive groves.

Plants ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1215
Ana Zabalza ◽  
Ainhoa Zulet-González ◽  
Maria Barco-Antoñanzas ◽  
Mikel V. Eceiza ◽  
Miriam Gil-Monreal ◽  

Quinate (1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate) is a compound synthesized in plants through a side-branch of the shikimate biosynthesis pathway, which is accumulated after glyphosate and acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides (ALS-inhibitors) and has phytotoxic potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of quinate on several weed species. Among the species evaluated, Cynodon dactylon, Bromus diandrus, Lolium rigidum, Sinapis alba, and Papaver rhoeas, P. rhoeas was the most sensitive, and its growth was controlled with quinate concentrations above 100 mM at the phenological stage of 6–8 true leaves. A physiological study, including the shikimate pathway and the physiological markers of ALS-inhibitors (carbohydrates and amino acids), was performed in the sensitive and resistant plants treated with sulfonylureas or quinate. The typical physiological effects of ALS-inhibitors were detected in the sensitive population (free amino acid and carbohydrate accumulation) and not detected in the resistant population. The mode of action of quinate appeared to be related to general perturbations in their carbon/nitrogen metabolism rather than to specific changes in the shikimate pathway. These results suggest the possibility of using quinate in the weed control management of P. rhoeas.

2020 ◽  
Vol 100 (3) ◽  
pp. 245-252
M.I. Santín-Montanyá ◽  
A. Sombrero Sacristán

In barley cropping systems of northern Spain, agronomic practices and weather conditions are key components of weed control efficacy. We compared the short-term effects of conventional tillage with minimum tillage (MT) and zero tillage (ZT), in barley monoculture and barley rotation systems. Weed density and weed species number were measured at tillering and flowering barley stages. We found that tillage system can influence weed density and weed species establishment due to, in part, the available light for weed seeds. The results obtained indicate that the MT system facilitates the prevalence of the grass weed Bromus diandrus Roth (50.37%) and the annual dicots Galium aparine (L.) and Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnst. abundant were high in the MT system too, 43.71% and 43.97% respectively. The germination of these species showed a high dependence on light availability. We saw that barley-monoculture plots had a large infestation of Bromus (71.29%) and barley-rotated plots presented more infestation of Galium and Buglossoides (74.36% and 84.4%, respectively). After herbicide application, weed infestation in conservation systems was reduced in barley-rotated plots compared with barley-monoculture. If conservation systems avoided the presence of dominant weeds, the weight of each weed species was balanced within competitive relationships of the cropping systems. Our results confirmed that MT and ZT systems favour different weed species emergences in barley-rotated plots. The combination of MT and barley-rotated cropping system resulted in greater weed diversity and lower total weed density.

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