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2022 ◽  
Vol 45 ◽  
pp. 53-64
Author(s):  
Attila Takács ◽  
Csaba Szabóky ◽  
Balázs Tóth ◽  
Miklós Bozsó ◽  
János Kutas ◽  
...  

Cydia interscindana (Möschler, 1866) has spread through several European countries in the past few years, becoming an invasive pest of ornamental trees. It was collected in Hungary for the first time in a pheromone trap set for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758) in 2014. Here we discuss its recent distribution in Hungary based on intensive sampling between 2018 and 2020, which showed the dispersal of the pest by humans. Two formerly unknown host plants are also recorded. The damage caused by the larvae, the external morphology of the adult male, larva, pupa (described for the first time) and pupal exuviae are presented. We also analyse DNA barcodes, identifying this pest for the first time via DNA sequencing of immature stages. Introduction Cydia interscindana is native in the Mediterranean region, where it was described by Möschler in 1866 from Andalusia. It is distributed in Mediterranean countries including Portugal (Corley 2004), Spain (Férriz et al. 2006), France (Lévêque et al. 2017) and Italy (Minelli 1995). Later the species was recorded in the British Isles (Knill-Jones 2020), Belgium (De Prins 2016), Switzerland (Swisslepteam 2010), Slovakia (Pastorális et al. 2018) and Russia (Caucasus; Schurov et al. 2017). In Hungary, Cydia interscindana adults were caught by a sticky delta pheromone trap (CSALOMON RAG type) for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus 1758) in 2014 during a study on swarming dynamics of the latter pest in Budapest. This provided the first record of the species in the Carpathian basin (Szabóky 2014; Takács and Szabóky 2015). In the Mediterranean region larvae feed on Juniperus oxycedrus (L.) (Miller 1990). In Belgium the larva was recorded on Juniperus spp. (Meert et al. 2019). J. oxycedrus is not native in Hungary, but Cupressus × leylandii A.B. Jacks. & Dallim 1926, Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco 1949 and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray bis) Parl. 1864 are popular evergreens used as ornamental trees both in parks and gardens. In Hungary several pests of these plants have been recorded, all probably introduced with imported plants; in the literature, 11 Lepidoptera, nine Coleoptera and six Hemiptera species have been mentioned already (Csóka and Kovács 1999; Maráczi 2013; Bozsik et al. 2016; Schurov et al. 2017). However, until the end of the 2000s, only Scolytidae (Coleoptera) species caused serious damage (Bozsik and Szőcs 2017). In 2012, an outbreak of the formerly detected (Muskovits 2001) Lamprodila festiva (Linnaeus 1767) (Buprestidae) took place in Budapest (Németh 2012) causing serious damage on Platycladus orientalis and several ornamental gymnosperm species. This outbreak was certainly caused by introduced specimens, that had arrived with trees from the Mediterranean region where this beetle is a well-known pest (Merkl 2016), whose abundance in Hungary increases due to climatic change (Csóka et al. 2018). Based on the available data, in Hungary this beetle pest has also been blamed for all the damage caused on Cupressus, Platycladus and Chamaecyparis trees and management has been carried out only against them. In 2018, a larva of L. festiva, an unidentified caterpillar and a freshly emerged specimen of Cydia interscindana were collected simultaneously from a Leyland cypress in Székesfehérvár (Central Hungary). In that year, similar Lepidoptera larvae were found in three neighbouring villages: Velence, Sukoró and Pákozd. To identify the sampled caterpillar, DNA analysis was undertaken. Additionally, in 2019–2020 a country-wide investigation was carried out to map the distribution and abundance of C. interscindana and gather data on bionomics of this pest in the Carpathian basin.


Author(s):  
Nicole C Soal ◽  
Martin H A Coetzee ◽  
Magriet A van der Nest ◽  
Almuth Hammerbacher ◽  
Brenda D Wingfield

Abstract Fungal species of the Ceratocystidaceae grow on their host plants using a variety of different lifestyles, from saprophytic to highly pathogenic. Although many genomes of fungi in the Ceratocystidaceae are publicly available, it is not known how the genes that encode catechol dioxygenases (CDOs), enzymes involved in the degradation of phenolic plant defence compounds, differ among members of the Ceratocystidaceae. The aim of this study was therefore to identify and characterize the genes encoding CDOs in the genomes of Ceratocystidaceae representatives. We found that genes encoding CDOs are more abundant in pathogenic necrotrophic species of the Ceratocystidaceae and less abundant in saprophytic species. The loss of the CDO genes and the associated 3-oxoadipate catabolic pathway appears to have occurred in a lineage-specific manner. Taken together, this study revealed a positive association between CDO gene copy number and fungal lifestyle in Ceratocystidaceae representatives.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alijon Xusanov

Diversity of ecological niches among aphid entomocenosis increased, most likely, in the process of evolution, due to unsuitability for one or two species selection in the direction of direct competition compared with the advantage of selection in the direction of differentiation niches, reliable provision of resources of different types in terms of maintaining of both species and the relative independence from the competition with other species for resources of host plants....


Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Author(s):  
Haoxiang Zhao ◽  
Xiaoqing Xian ◽  
Zihua Zhao ◽  
Guifen Zhang ◽  
Wanxue Liu ◽  
...  

Helicoverpa zea, a well-documented and endemic pest throughout most of the Americas, affecting more than 100 species of host plants. It is a quarantine pest according to the Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission (APPPC) and the catalog of quarantine pests for plants imported to the People’s Republic of China. Based on 1781 global distribution records of H. zea and eight bioclimatic variables, the potential geographical distributions (PGDs) of H. zea were predicted by using a calibrated MaxEnt model. The contribution rate of bioclimatic variables and the jackknife method were integrated to assess the significant variables governing the PGDs. The response curves of bioclimatic variables were quantitatively determined to predict the PGDs of H. zea under climate change. The results showed that: (1) four out of the eight variables contributed the most to the model performance, namely, mean diurnal range (bio2), precipitation seasonality (bio15), precipitation of the driest quarter (bio17) and precipitation of the warmest quarter (bio18); (2) PGDs of H. zea under the current climate covered 418.15 × 104 km2, and were large in China; and (3) future climate change will facilitate the expansion of PGDs for H. zea under shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) 1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 in both the 2030s and 2050s. The conversion of unsuitable to low suitability habitat and moderately to high suitability habitat increased by 8.43% and 2.35%, respectively. From the present day to the 2030s, under SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5, the centroid of the suitable habitats of H. zea showed a general tendency to move eastward; from 2030s to the 2050s, under SSP1-2.6 and SSP5-8.5, it moved southward, and it moved slightly northward under SSP2-4.5. According to bioclimatic conditions, H. zea has a high capacity for colonization by introduced individuals in China. Customs ports should pay attention to host plants and containers of H. zea and should exchange information to strengthen plant quarantine and pest monitoring, thus enhancing target management.


Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Author(s):  
Netta Dorchin ◽  
Stephany van Munster ◽  
Cornelia Klak ◽  
Rauri C. K. Bowie ◽  
Jonathan F. Colville

Aizoaceae (Caryophyllales) constitute one of the major floral components of the unique Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR), with more than 1700 species and 70% endemism. Within succulent Aizoaceae, the subfamily Ruschioideae is the most speciose and rapidly diversifying clade, offering potential niches for the diversification of specialized herbivorous insects. Nevertheless, insect diversity on these plants has not been studied to date, and knowledge of gall-inducing insects in the Afrotropics is generally scarce. Our recent observations indicate that succulent Aizoaceae in the GCFR support a rich and largely unstudied community of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Here, we provide a first report of their diversity with a description of a new genus, Ruschiola Dorchin, and ten new species, based on morphological and molecular analyses of material collected during a three-year targeted survey across major GCFR vegetation types. A high degree of morphological uniformity in Ruschiola suggests recent diversification and necessitated the use of molecular data and laboratory rearing from host plants to verify species boundaries and host ranges.


Author(s):  
Laura Bizzarri ◽  
Erin K. Kuprewicz ◽  
Megana Varma ◽  
Carlos García‐Robledo

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 561
Author(s):  
Yuguo Wu ◽  
Dong Luo ◽  
Longfa Fang ◽  
Qiang Zhou ◽  
Wenxian Liu ◽  
...  

Dodder species (Cuscuta spp.) are holoparasites that have extensive material exchange with their host plants through vascular connections. Recent studies on cross-species transfer have provided breakthrough insights, but little is known about the interaction mechanisms of the inter-plant mobile substances in parasitic systems. We sequenced the transcriptomes of dodder growing on soybean hosts to characterize the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transfer between the two species, and found that lncRNAs can move in high numbers (365 dodder lncRNAs and 14 soybean lncRNAs) in a bidirectional manner. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction further confirmed that individual lncRNAs were trafficked in the dodder–soybean parasitic system. To reveal the potential functions of mobile transcripts, the Gene Ontology terms of mobile lncRNA target genes were predicted, and mobile dodder target genes were found to be mainly enriched in “metabolic process”, “catalytic activity”, “signaling”, and “response to stimulus” categories, whereas mobile soybean target genes were enriched in organelle-related categories, indicating that specific mobile lncRNAs may be important in regulating dodder parasitism. Our findings reveal that lncRNAs are transferred between dodder and its host soybean plants, which may act as critical regulators to coordinate the host–dodder interaction at the whole parasitic level.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 296
Author(s):  
Md. Hridoy ◽  
Md. Zobayer Hossain Gorapi ◽  
Sadia Noor ◽  
Nargis Sultana Chowdhury ◽  
Md. Mustafizur Rahman ◽  
...  

Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that exist almost ubiquitously inside the various tissues of living plants where they act as an important reservoir of diverse bioactive compounds. Recently, endophytic fungi have drawn tremendous attention from researchers; their isolation, culture, purification, and characterization have revealed the presence of around 200 important and diverse compounds including anticancer agents, antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, immunosuppressants, and antimycotics. Many of these anticancer compounds, such as paclitaxel, camptothecin, vinblastine, vincristine, podophyllotoxin, and their derivatives, are currently being used clinically for the treatment of various cancers (e.g., ovarian, breast, prostate, lung cancers, and leukemias). By increasing the yield of specific compounds with genetic engineering and other biotechnologies, endophytic fungi could be a promising, prolific source of anticancer drugs. In the future, compounds derived from endophytic fungi could increase treatment availability and cost effectiveness. This comprehensive review includes the putative anticancer compounds from plant-derived endophytic fungi discovered from 1990 to 2020 with their source endophytic fungi and host plants as well as their antitumor activity against various cell lines.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Author(s):  
Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto ◽  
Aline Pomari-Fernandes ◽  
Gilberto Rostirolla Batista de Souza

ABSTRACT: The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a polyphagous pest that causes losses in several crops. The knowledge of host plants is essential for establishing management and control strategies. The present study reported the first occurrence of S. frugiperda in Brazilian grapevines. It is recommended that further studies should be carried out in the laboratory to understand the biological aspects of the damage to different structures (leaves and grapes). This information will be essential to assess the potential of S. frugiperda damage to vines.


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