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Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2648
Author(s):  
Diana Sivojiene ◽  
Audrius Kacergius ◽  
Eugenija Baksiene ◽  
Aiste Maseviciene ◽  
Lina Zickiene

Soil microorganisms are one of the main indicators used for assessing the stability of the soil ecosystem, the metabolism in the soil, and its fertility. The most important are the active soil microorganisms and the influence of the fertilizer applied to the soil on the abundance of these microorganisms. We aimed to investigate how the applied organic fertilizers affect the most active soil microorganisms, which determine the soil fertility and stability. Fungi, yeast-like fungi abundance, and abundance of three physiological groups of bacteria were analyzed: non-symbiotic diazotrophic, organotrophic, and mineral nitrogen assimilating. This study is valuable because relatively few similar studies have been performed on infertile Lithuanian soils. The first results of a long-term study were obtained. The results show the effect of fertilizers on trends in the changes of microorganism community diversity; however, more analysis is needed to assess the impact of organic fertilizers on the most active soil microorganisms. Therefore, the investigation was continued. The results of the 2020 quantitative analysis of culturable soil microorganisms show that the highest abundance of organotrophic and non-symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria were recorded during the summer season. Meanwhile, the abundance of bacteria assimilating mineral nitrogen and fungi was higher in autumn. Agrochemical parameters were determined at the beginning of the experiment. The highest concentration of Nmin in the soil was determined after fertilizing the plants with the combination of granulated poultry manure (N170) + biological substance Azotobacter spp. The yield of barley was calculated. It was found that the highest yield of spring barley in 2020 was obtained by fertilizing the experimental field with organic in combination with mineral fertilizers.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2647
Author(s):  
Yilin Zhang ◽  
Wei Chen ◽  
Xiaohui Sang ◽  
Ting Wang ◽  
Haiyan Gong ◽  
...  

(1) Background: Plants respond to pathogen challenge by activating a defense system involving pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The PR-5 family includes thaumatin, thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs), and other related proteins. TLPs play an important role in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Many TLP-encoding genes have been identified and functionally characterized in the model plant species. (2) Results: We identified a total of 90 TLP genes in the G. barbadense genome. They were phylogenetically classified into 10 subfamilies and distributed across 19 chromosomes and nine scaffolds. The genes were characterized by examining their exon–intron structures, promoter cis-elements, conserved domains, synteny and collinearity, gene family evolution, and gene duplications. Several TLP genes were predicted to be targets of miRNAs. Investigation of expression changes of 21 GbTLPs in a G. barbadense cultivar (Hai7124) resistance to Verticillium dahliae revealed 13 GbTLPs being upregulated in response to V. dahliae infection, suggesting a potential role of these GbTLP genes in disease response. (3) Conclusions: The results of this study allow insight into the GbTLP gene family, identify GbTLP genes responsive to V. dahliae infection, and provide candidate genes for future studies of their roles in disease resistance.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2643
Author(s):  
Irfan Abbas ◽  
Jizhan Liu ◽  
Muhammad Amin ◽  
Aqil Tariq ◽  
Mazhar Hussain Tunio

Plant health is the basis of agricultural development. Plant diseases are a major factor for crop losses in agriculture. Plant diseases are difficult to diagnose correctly, and the manual disease diagnosis process is time consuming. For this reason, it is highly desirable to automatically identify the diseases in strawberry plants to prevent loss of crop quality. Deep learning (DL) has recently gained popularity in image classification and identification due to its high accuracy and fast learning. In this research, deep learning models were used to identify the leaf scorch disease in strawberry plants. Four convolutional neural networks (SqueezeNet, EfficientNet-B3, VGG-16 and AlexNet) CNN models were trained and tested for the classification of healthy and leaf scorch disease infected plants. The performance accuracy of EfficientNet-B3 and VGG-16 was higher for the initial and severe stage of leaf scorch disease identification as compared to AlexNet and SqueezeNet. It was also observed that the severe disease (leaf scorch) stage was correctly classified more often than the initial stage of the disease. All the trained CNN models were integrated with a machine vision system for real-time image acquisition under two different lighting situations (natural and controlled) and identification of leaf scorch disease in strawberry plants. The field experiment results with controlled lightening arrangements, showed that the model EfficientNet-B3 achieved the highest classification accuracy, with 0.80 and 0.86 for initial and severe disease stages, respectively, in real-time. AlexNet achieved slightly lower validation accuracy (0.72, 0.79) in comparison with VGGNet and EfficientNet-B3. Experimental results stated that trained CNN models could be used in conjunction with variable rate agrochemical spraying systems, which will help farmers to reduce agrochemical use, crop input costs and environmental contamination.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2644
Author(s):  
Yin Luo ◽  
Yanyang Xie ◽  
Weiqiang Li ◽  
Maohuan Wei ◽  
Tian Dai ◽  
...  

High temperature stress seriously limits the yield and quality of wheat. Trehalose, a non-reducing disaccharide, has been shown involved in regulating plant responses to a variety of environmental stresses. This study aimed to explore the molecular regulatory network of exogenous trehalose to improve wheat heat tolerance through RNA-sequencing technology and physiological determination. The physiological data and RNA-seq showed that trehalose reduced malondialdehyde content and relative conductivity in wheat roots, and affecting the phenylpropane biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and other pathways. Our results showed that exogenous trehalose alleviates the oxidative damage caused by high temperature, coordinating the effect of wheat on heat stress by re-encoding the overall gene expression, but two wheat varieties showed different responses to high temperature stress after trehalose pretreatment. This study preliminarily revealed the effect of trehalose on gene expression regulation of wheat roots under high temperature stress, which provided a reference for the study of trehalose.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2646
Author(s):  
Eloísa Agüera ◽  
Purificación de la Haba

The biochemical, biological, and morphogenetic processes of plants are affected by ongoing climate change, causing alterations in crop development, growth, and productivity. Climate change is currently producing ecosystem modifications, making it essential to study plants with an improved adaptive capacity in the face of environmental modifications. This work examines the physiological and metabolic changes taking place during the development of sunflower plants due to environmental modifications resulting from climate change: elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and increased temperatures. Variations in growth, and carbon and nitrogen metabolism, as well as their effect on the plant’s oxidative state in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) plants, are studied. An understanding of the effect of these interacting factors (elevated CO2 and elevated temperatures) on plant development and stress response is imperative to understand the impact of climate change on plant productivity.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2641
Author(s):  
Luis G. Hernandez-Montiel ◽  
Samir Droby ◽  
Pablo Preciado-Rangel ◽  
Tomás Rivas-García ◽  
Ramsés R. González-Estrada ◽  
...  

Postharvest diseases of fruits caused by phytopathogens cause losses up to 50% of global production. Phytopathogens control is performed with synthetic fungicides, but the application causes environmental contamination problems and human and animal health in addition to generating resistance. Yeasts are antagonist microorganisms that have been used in the last years as biocontrol agents and in sustainable postharvest disease management in fruits. Yeast application for biocontrol of phytopathogens has been an effective action worldwide. This review explores the sustainable use of yeasts in each continent, the main antagonistic mechanisms towards phytopathogens, their relationship with OMIC sciences, and patents at the world level that involve yeast-based-products for their biocontrol.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2645
Author(s):  
Antonios Chrysargyris ◽  
Charalampos Rousos ◽  
Panayiota Xylia ◽  
Nikolaos Tzortzakis

Consumers seek safe, high-nutritional-value products, and therefore maintaining fresh produce quality is a fundamental goal in the food industry. In an effort to eliminate chemical-based sanitizing agents, there has been a shift in recent decades toward the usage of eco-friendly, natural solutions (e.g., essential oils-EOs). In the present study, tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Dafni) at breaker and red ripening stage were exposed to sage essential oils (EO: 50 μL L−1 or 500 μL L−1) for 2, 7 and 14 days, at 11 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH). Quality-related attributes were examined during (sustain effect—SE) and following (vapour-induced memory effect—ME; seven days vapours + seven days storage) vapour treatment. In breaker tomatoes, EO-enrichment (sustained effect) retained fruit firmness, respiration rates, and ethylene emission in low EO levels (50 μL L−1). In contrast, breaker fruit metabolism sped up in high EO levels of 500 μL L−1, with decreased firmness, increased rates of respiration and ethylene, and effects on antioxidant metabolism. The effects were more pronounced during the storage period of 14 days, comparing to the fruit exposed to common storage-transit practice. In red fruits, the EOs impacts were evidenced earlier (at two and seven days of storage) with increased rates of respiration and ethylene, increased β-carotene, and decreased lycopene content. In both breaker and red ripening fruit, EO application decreased weight losses. Considering the fruits pre-exposed to EOs, quality attributes were more affected in green fruits and affected to a lesser level in the red ones. Furthermore, based on appearance, color, and texture evaluations, organoleptic trials demonstrated an overwhelming preference for EO-treated red fruit during choice tests. EOs had lower effects on total phenolics, acidity, total soluble solids, and fruit chroma, with no specific trend for both breaker and red tomatoes. Natural volatiles may aid to retain fruit quality in parallel with their antimicrobial protection offered during storage and transportation of fresh produce. These effects may persist after the EO is removed from the storage conditions.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2642
Author(s):  
Bárbara Rojas ◽  
Felipe Suárez-Vega ◽  
Susana Saez-Aguayo ◽  
Patricio Olmedo ◽  
Baltasar Zepeda ◽  
...  

The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) is widespread in commercial table grape vineyards. The synthetic cytokinin CPPU is a PGR that is extensively used to obtain higher quality grapes. However, the effect of CPPU on berry firmness is not clear. The current study investigated the effects of pre-anthesis applications (BBCH15 and BBCH55 stages) of CPPU on ‘Thompson Seedless’ berry firmness at harvest through a combination of cytological, morphological, and biochemical analyses. Ovaries in CPPU-treated plants presented morphological changes related to cell division and cell wall modification at the anthesis stage (BBCH65). Moreover, immunofluorescence analysis with monoclonal antibodies 2F4 and LM15 against pectin and xyloglucan demonstrated that CPPU treatment resulted in cell wall modifications at anthesis. These early changes have major repercussions regarding the hemicellulose and pectin cell wall composition of mature fruits, and are associated with increased calcium content and a higher berry firmness at harvest.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2640
Author(s):  
Chiming Gu ◽  
Wei Huang ◽  
Yue Li ◽  
Yinshui Li ◽  
Changbin Yu ◽  
...  

Excessive use of chemical fertilizers has led to a reduction in the quality of arable land and environmental pollution. Using green manure to replace chemical fertilizers is one of the most effective solutions. To study the effect of green manure on the requirement for nitrogen fertilizer in oilseed rape, a field experiment with maize–oilseed rape rotation was conducted. Green manure was intercropped between rows of maize and returned after the maize harvest, with no green manure intercropped as control. Different nitrogen fertilizer treatments (0, 65%, 75% and 100% N rates, respectively) were applied during the oilseed rape season. The results showed that with a 35% reduction in nitrogen application rate, the rapeseed grain yield was significantly higher with the maize intercropping with green manure returned to the field than with the maize monocropping treatment at the same nitrogen level. Under conditions of intercropping and return of green manure, compared with the full standard rate of nitrogen fertilizer treatment, a reduction in nitrogen application of 25–30% in the rape season had no significant effect on rape yield. The agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer on oilseed rape increased significantly, by 47.61–121%, with green manure incorporation. In addition, green manure incorporation significantly increased the soil organic matter content and the soil-available nitrogen content when chemical nitrogen fertilization was abandoned. Benefit analysis showed that a 25–35% reduction in chemical nitrogen fertilizer applied to oilseed rape crops could be achieved by intercropping green manure in the maize season before the sowing of rapeseed in the experimental area. In the long-term, this measure would increase nitrogen utility, reduce production costs, and have concomitant environmental benefits of improving the quality of cultivated land.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2636
Author(s):  
Ganeshan Sivanandhan ◽  
Solhee Bae ◽  
Chaemin Sung ◽  
Su Ryun Choi ◽  
Geung-Joo Lee ◽  
...  

Chinese cabbage is an important dietary source of numerous phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and anthocyanins. The selection and development of elite Chinese cabbage cultivars with favorable traits is hindered by a long breeding cycle, a complex genome structure, and the lack of an efficient plant transformation protocol. Thus, a protoplast transfection-based transformation method may be useful for cell-based breeding and functional studies involving Chinese cabbage plants. In this study, we established an effective method for isolating Chinese cabbage protoplasts, which were then transfected with the pCAMBIA1303 binary vector according to an optimized PEG-based method. More specifically, protoplasts were isolated following a 4 h incubation in a solution comprising 1.5% (v/v) cellulase, 0.25% (v/v) macerozyme, 0.25% (v/v) pectinase, 0.5 M mannitol, 15 mM CaCl2, 25 mM KCl, 0.1% BSA, and 20 mM MES buffer, pH 5.7. This method generated 7.1 × 106 protoplasts, 78% of which were viable. The gfp reporter gene in pCAMBIA1303 was used to determine the transfection efficiency. The Chinese cabbage protoplast transfection rate was highest (68%) when protoplasts were transfected with the 40 µg binary vector for 30 min in a solution containing 40% PEG. The presence of gusA and hptII in the protoplasts was confirmed by PCR. The methods developed in this study would be useful for DNA-free genome editing as well as functional and molecular investigations of Chinese cabbage.


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