Effective control of Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (blackgrass) solely with a chemical treatment is not guaranteed anymore because populations exhibit resistance to almost all herbicide modes of action. Integrated weed management (IWM) against blackgrass is necessary to maintain high weed control efficacies in winter cereals. Four field experiments were conducted in Southwest Germany from 2018 to 2020 to control A. myosuroides with a combination of cultural and chemical methods. Stubble treatments, including flat, deep and inversion soil tillage; false seedbed preparation and glyphosate use, were combined with the application of the new pre-emergence herbicide cinmethylin in two rates in winter wheat. Average densities of A. myosuroides in the untreated control plots were up to 505 plants m−2. The combination of different stubble management strategies and the pre-emergence herbicide cinmethylin controlled 86–97% of A. myosuroides plants at the low rate and 95–100% at the high rate until 120 days after sowing. The different stubble tillage practices varied in their efficacy between trials and years. Most effective and consistent were pre-sowing glyphosate application on the stubble and stale seedbed preparation with a disc harrow. Stubble treatments increased winter wheat density in the first year but had no effect on crop density in the second year. Pre-emergence application of cinmethylin did not reduce winter wheat densities. Multiple tactics of weed control, including stubble treatments and pre-emergence application of cinmethylin, provided higher and more consistent control of A. myosuroides. Integration of cultural weed management could prevent the herbicide resistance development.
In order to implement environmental protection, within the Soil Cadastre, previously proposed as a multipurpose inventory that aims to promote sustainable soil uses, the hydrogeological instability caused by human activities is the focus of this work. These activities can be aimed at sustainable agricultural soil use or the building of roads to allow the access to the fields. The soil’s hydrogeological instability causes the unsustainable use and management of a cadastral parcel. Therefore, the aim of this work is to propose a nomenclature for hydrogeological instability risks, as well as the best practices of conservative soil tillage in case studies, in order to reduce environmental impact. According to the proposed Soil Cadastre, the missing environmental sustainability of a parcel and the reason for this must be communicated to the field owner or manager. In a hilly area of inland Western Sicily, four main risk types of hydrogeological instability were identified: hydrogeological instability (caused only by natural factors); hydraulic-pedological farming instability (crop not suitable for the field for missing or insufficient soil drainage and landslides); hydraulic-infrastructural instability (built up infrastructures unsuitable for the site); hydraulic-infrastructural-pedological-management instability (field improvements changing the downflow line and crop operations not suitable for the soil and climate parameters). The farm owner or manager must be informed about the risk type affecting their fields in order to perform the best practices (i.e., conservative soil tillage), for implementing or restoring a sustainable soil use or management in each cadastral parcel.
The substitution of native vegetation in agricultural systems can cause several changes in the chemical and physical soil attributes, and in the dynamics of soil organic carbon. This study aimed to evaluate changes in soil physical attributes and carbon stock in soil organic matter fractions in irrigated sugarcane crops, as a function of land use and straw management practices over time, in the North of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Four sugarcane fields with different ages and management systems were studied: Cane 6, Cane 7, Cane 8, and Cane 10. The data obtained were compared with a native vegetation area located near the sugarcane fields, and used as reference for unmanaged soil. In each system, soil samples were collected in the 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depth layers, to determine the physical attributes, the total organic carbon, and the physical fractions of the soil organic matter. We found that the sugarcane management with the maintenance of a part of the straw on the soil surface contributes to the preservation of the soil structure and the most stable fractions of organic carbon over time. However, in the regions with high annual mean temperature and in the irrigated systems, the soil tillage for the renewal of the sugarcane fields significantly decreases the total soil organic carbon.
Climate change and disproportionate anthropogenic interventions, such as the excess of phytopharmaceutical products and continuous soil tillage, are jeopardizing viticulture by subjecting plants to continuous abiotic stress. One of the main physiological repercussions of abiotic stress is represented by the unbalanced redox homeostasis due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultimately leading to a state of oxidative stress (detrimental to grape quality). To these are added the direct and indirect damages caused by pathogens (biotic stresses). In light of this scenario, it is inevitable that sustainable techniques and sensitivity approaches for environmental and human health have to be applied in viticulture. Sustainable viticulture can only be made with the aid of sustainable products. Biostimulant (PB) applications (including resistance inducers or elicitors) in the vineyard have become interesting maneuvers for counteracting vine diseases and improving grape quality. These also represent a partial alternative to soil fertilization by improving nutrient absorption and avoiding its leaching into the groundwater. Their role as elicitors has important repercussions in the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by triggering the activation of several enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase, lipoxygenase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase (with the accumulation of phenolic compounds). The present review paper summarizes the PBs’ implications in viticulture, gathering historical, functional, and applicative information. This work aims to highlight the innumerable beneficial effects on vines brought by these products. It also serves to spur the scientific community to a greater contribution in investigating the response mechanisms of the plant to positive inductions.
Reduced soil tillage is a powerful means to mitigate soil degradation. However, in arid climates, no-till rainfed technologies often result in yield drop due to lack of soil moisture and mineral nutrition. Rainfed production of winter wheat using direct sowing and diversified fertilization in South Kazakhstan was studied in 2019–2020. Eight field-scale treatments using nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were studied for biometric parameters of winter wheat. An economic profitability of the amendments used was assessed. The soil managed to accumulate productive moisture to support plants’ needs during formation of productive organs. Use of phosphorus fertilizer at direct sowing accelerated grain maturation, and the combination of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizer lengthened the growing season. The highest production cost of 1 tonne of grain was in the plots that did not receive any amendments, and the lowest cost was in the treatment with use of plant growth stimulants together with micronutrient fertilizer. For the first time, optimization of the soil nutritional regime with consideration of the biological and phenological demands allowed for the balance of the plant nutrition and cost efficiency of grain production with direct sowing of winter wheat in dry conditions in South Kazakhstan.
In order to study the compressive creep properties and laws of paddy soil, multi-stress creep experiments of paddy soil with different moisture content were carried out. The results show that the creep deformation of paddy soil, subjected to compressive loads effect, develops stably and the paddy soil is not destructed under the yield strength when the stress is low. When the stress level is higher than the yield strength, the internal damage of paddy soil would be caused at the moment of loading. With the extension of creep time, the cracks would gradually expand, resulting in the soil to yield, break and disintegrate. According to the analysis of the deformation properties of paddy soil under compression and the change trend of creep curve, the nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic model was composed of the nonlinear viscoplastic model and Burgers model in series. The creep test curve was introduced into the model for fitting, and the coefficient of determination reached more than 0.96. Based on the model, the strain composition, strain proportion, and strain rate of paddy soil were studied. Finally, the nonlinear model was compared with Burgers model by verification test. The fitting accuracy of the nonlinear model was better than Burgers model, and the coefficient of determination and relative error were 0.997 and 0.437%, respectively, which proved the rationality and correctness of the nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic model. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the optimization of tillage machinery structure and the simulation analysis of soil tillage and compaction.