weed species
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2022 ◽  
Geraldine Tierney

This assessment synthesizes information about current and projected climate and related impacts at Martin Van Buren National Historic Park (MAVA) in order to help park stewards understand, plan, and manage for climate change. Working with a group of park managers, scientists, and local stake-holders, six key park resources were identified for assessment herein: Climate, Water quantity, Phenology, Agriculture, Trees, and Cultural resources. Where data was available, this analysis assessed current condition and considered mid-century (2030–2060) and end-of-century (2100) impacts based on a range of projected future climate conditions, including reduced, low, high and highest emission pathways. Climate change stressors identified for MAVA include: Increased temperature, increased hot days, increased precipitation, increased extreme precipitation events, increased flooding and erosion, shifting ranges of both native species and pest, pathogen and weed species, and phenological shifts and mismatches.

2022 ◽  
Jamal R. Qasem

Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 herbicides in controlling hairy fleabane [ Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist] in a date palm orchard located in the central Jordan valley during the spring of 2017. Results showed that C. bonariensis resists paraquat (2.5, 5 and 7.5kgha -1 ), oxadiazon (5kgha -1 ) and oxyflourfen (3.3kgha -1 ) herbicides applied at normal or higher than the recommended rates. None of the three herbicides was significantly effective against the weed and treated plants continued growing normally similar to those of untreated control. Higher rates (10-fold of the recommended rates) of the same herbicides failed to control the weed. The effect of other tested herbicides on the weed was varied with bromoxynil plus MCPA (buctril ® M), 2,4-D- iso-octyl ester, glyphosate, glyphosate trimesium and triclopyr were most effective and completely controlled the weed at recommended rates of application. Testing paraquat, oxadiazon and oxyflourfen using the normal recommended and 10-fold higher rates on two populations of C. bonariensis grown from seeds of the date palm and al-Twal (another site in the Jordan Valley) weed populations and grown in pots under glasshouse conditions showed that Date palm population was resistant to the three herbicides at both application rates while al-Twal site population was highly susceptible and completely controlled at normal and high rates of the three herbicides. It is concluded that certain populations of C . bonariensis developed resistance to paraquat, oxadiazon and oxyflourfen but control of this weed was possible using other herbicides of different mechanism of action. Herbicide rotation or other nonchemical weed control methods have been suggested to prevent or reduce the buildup and spread of resistant populations of this weed species. These results represent the first report on herbicide resistance of C. bonariensis in Jordan.

YMER Digital ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (01) ◽  
pp. 220-225
S. R Nikam ◽  
Dr. D. D Namdas ◽  

Alternanthera sessilis (Linn). R. Br. ex DC. is a treasure house of phytochemicals belongs to family Amaranthaceae, popularly known as stalkless joy weed, sessile joy weed, dwarf copperleaf, joy weed, Garundi, Guroo, Kanchari. The ability of its seeds to germinate in any season of the year makes it a constantly flourishing component of the vegetation. The main objective of current investigation was to study the qualitatively preliminary phytochemical analysis of such weed species. The fresh plant leaves of Alternanthera sessilis were screened to understand the phytochemical potential with the use of four extracts such as aqueous, acetone, methanol and ethanol. The outcome of the study indicates that the fresh plant contains different classes of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac-glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, quinones, coumarins etc. Phytochemical are certain non-nutritive plant chemicals which have allelopathic properties. These phytochemical constituents play an important role in formulation of pharmaceutical and pharmacological drugs

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Raven A. Bough ◽  
Todd A. Gaines ◽  
Franck E. Dayan

Quizalofop-resistant wheat is the core component of the recently commercialized CoAXium™ Wheat Production System. As with other herbicides, quizalofop provides better weed control at early growth stages and under optimum temperature. However, in regions with winter wheat production, quizalofop application may be affected by unpredictable, rapid temperature decreases. Temperature shifts can cause crop injury or impact weed control efficacy. In the following study, we examine the effect of reduced temperature on quizalofop content and metabolism in CoAXium™ winter wheat and three winter weed species: downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), feral rye (Secale cereale L.), and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host). Temperature conditions include either 19 or 4.5°C daytime temperatures with tissue sampling over 5 timepoints (1–16 or 18 days after treatment, DAT). Analysis features liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection of the active form of quizalofop, quizalofop acid. Quizalofop content trends reveal delayed metabolism under cooler conditions for wheat and weeds. Quizalofop content peaks within 1–2 DAT in the warmer temperatures for all species and decreases thereafter. In contrast, content peaks between 8 and 9 DAT at cooler temperatures except for downy brome. Minimal decreases in content over time generally follow cooler temperature peaks. Further, the absence of differences in maximum quizalofop content in all species suggests absorption and/or de-esterification of quizalofop proherbicide to the active form is not reduced at cooler temperatures. Final dry shoot tissue biomass does not necessarily correspond to differences in metabolism, as biomass of wheat treated with a field rate of quizalofop does not differ between temperatures. Weeds were treated with sublethal doses of quizalofop in order to monitor herbicide metabolism without causing plant death. Under this condition, weed biomass only differs for jointed goatgrass, which has a greater biomass in the cooler temperature.

K. Ramesh ◽  
S. Vijaya Kumar ◽  
P. K. Upadhyay ◽  
B. S. Chauhan

Abstract Weeds are a major biotic constraint to the production of crops. Studies on the critical period of weed control (CPWC) consider the yield loss due to the presence of all weeds present in the crop cycle. The CPWC is the time interval between the critical timing of weed removal (CTWR) and the critical weed-free period (CWFP), and the weed presence before and after the extremes of CTWR and CWFP may not significantly reduce crop yield. The crop yield is taken into consideration and weed density or biomass of individual weeds (annual or perennial) is not so important while calculating the CPWC. Only weed density or biomass is considered for calculating weed control efficiency of a particular management practice for which the weed seed bank is also a criterion. However, weed biomass is the outcome after competition experienced by each weed species with the fellow crop and the weeds. Consequently, the weed pressure in the subsequent season will be the cumulative effect of the preceding season too, which is unaccounted for in CPWC. It is argued that in organic farming or low-input farming systems, where herbicides are not used, the concept of CPWC can be misleading and should be avoided. It is concluded that CTWR is more meaningful than the CPWC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mandeep Singh ◽  
Meetpal Singh Kukal ◽  
Suat Irmak ◽  
Amit J. Jhala

Weeds usually penalize crop yields by competing for resources, such as water, light, nutrients, and space. Most of the studies on the crop-weed competition domain are limited to assessing crop-yield losses due to weed pressure and other crop-weed interactions, overlooking the significant uptake of soil-water by weeds that exacerbates global water constraints and threatens the productivity and profitability. The objective of this review was to synthesize globally available quantitative data on weed water use (WU) sourced from 23 peer-reviewed publications (filtered from 233 publications via a multi-step protocol of inclusion criteria) with experimental investigations across space (3 continents), time (1927–2018), weed species (27 broadleaf and 7 grasses) and characteristics, cropping systems (5), soil types (ranging from coarse-textured sand to fine-textured clay soils), determination techniques, experimental factors (environment, management, resource availability, and competition), and aridity regimes (ranging from semi-arid to humid climate). Distributions of weed WU data reported via eight different metrics were assessed for variability and mean WU. A lack of the best experimental and reporting practices in weed WU research was identified that undermined the robustness, transferability, and application of the WU data. Mandatory protocols and the best practices typically followed in the agricultural water management research were described and recommended for weed scientists to avoid pitfalls in quantifying and presenting weed WU. A model of mixed plant community evapotranspiration (ET) was adapted to model weed-crop-soil system evaporation and transpiration in a crop canopy infested with multiple (n) weed species. Finally, potential cross-disciplinary questions across the domains of crop science, weed science, agricultural water management, irrigation science and engineering, and environmental changes were proposed to direct and prioritize future research efforts in the crop-weed-water arena.

2022 ◽  
Leticia Bonilla-Valencia ◽  
Silvia Castillo-Argüero ◽  
José Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado ◽  
Francisco Javier Espinosa-García ◽  
Roberto Lindig-Cisneros ◽  

Functional diversity is related to the maintenance of processes and functions in ecosystems. However, there is a lack of a conceptual framework that highlights the application of functional diversity as an ecological indicator. Therefore, we present a new initiative for motivating the development of ecological indicators based on functional diversity. We are interested in showing the challenges and solutions associated with these indicators. We integrated species assemblage theories and literature reviews. We considered plant traits related to ecosystem processes and functions (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, wood density, phenology, and seed mass) to show the application of a selection of functional diversity metrics that can be used as ecological indicators (i.e., Community Weighted-Mean, Functional Divergence, Functional Richness and Functional Evenness). We caution that functional diversity as an ecological indicator can be misinterpreted if species composition is unknown. Functional diversity values can be overrepresented by weed species (species established in disturbed sites) and do not maintain original processes and functions in ecosystems. Therefore, we searched for evidence to demonstrate that weed species are ecological indicators of functional diversity changes. We found support for two hypotheses that explain the effect of weed species on ecosystem function: functional homogenization and functional transformation. Likewise, we showed the application of some tools that can help study the anthropogenic effect on functional indicators. This review shows that the paradigm of addressing the effects of disturbances on ecosystem processes by using functional diversity as an ecological indicator can improve environmental evaluation, particularly in areas affected by human activities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (6) ◽  
pp. 57-67
T. V. Morokhovets ◽  
V. N. Morokhovets ◽  
S. S. Vostrikova ◽  
Z. V. Basay ◽  
N. S. Skorik ◽  

The results of the study of the weed component of soybean, early grain crops and maize agrocenoses in Primorsky Territory are presented. In total, 111 species of weeds belonging to 35 families were found during the period from 2016 to 2020. Compared with the results of crop surveys conducted in 2006-2015, the total number of species detected has increased by 23. The largest number of species belongs to the families Asteraceae (24), Poaceae (15), Polygonaceae (11), Fabaceae (9), Brassicaceae (8), Caryophyllaceae (7) and Lamiaceae (5). The remaining 26 families were represented by 1-3 species each. For the first time weeds-representatives of the families Scrophulariaceae, Violaceae, Lythraceae, Onagraceae, Asclepiadaceae and Boraginaceae have been discovered. The floristic composition of soybean agrocenoses was the highest with 108 weed species from 31 families. In cereal and maize crops, weed diversity was less significant, with 75 species in 22 families and 72 species in 25 families, respectively. Weed vegetation in all the above crops is represented by 62 species of 19 families. The main weed species that grew on 97-99% of the surveyed territory with a sufficiently high average density of standing (21-61pcs/m2) were Asian copperleaf, cockspur grass and common ragweed. Also, more than half of the surveyed crops of soybeans, cereals and corn were hairy cupgrass, perennial sow thistle, common couch-grass, common lamb’s quarters, wormwood species, field horsetail, yellow thistle, dayflower and yellow foxtail. Practical measures to protect against weeds on the Primorsky Territory should be primarily aimed at controlling these species.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262288
Bhagirath Singh Chauhan ◽  
Sudheesh Manalil

Summer grass weed species are a particular problem in the northeast cropping region of Australia because they are prolific seeders and favor no-till systems. Information on weed seed persistence levels can be used for the development of effective and sustainable integrated weed management programs. A field study was conducted over 42 months to evaluate the seedbank persistence of Chloris truncata, C. virgata, Dactyloctenium radulans, and Urochloa panicoides as affected by burial depth (0, 2, and 10 cm). Regardless of species, buried seeds persisted longer than surface seeds and there was no difference in seed persistence between 2 and 10 cm depths. Surface seeds of C. truncata depleted completely in 12 months and buried seeds in 24 months. Similarly, C. virgata seeds placed on the soil surface depleted in 12 months. Buried seeds of this species took 18 months to completely deplete, suggesting that C. truncata seeds persist longer than C. virgata seeds. Surface seeds of D. radulans took 36 months to completely deplete, whereas about 7% of buried seeds were still viable at 42 months. U. panicoides took 24 and 42 months to completely exhaust the surface and buried seeds, respectively. These results suggest that leaving seeds on the soil surface will result in a more rapid depletion of the seedbank. Information on seed persistence will help to manage these weeds using strategic tillage operations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2161 (1) ◽  
pp. 012006
Namratha Makanapura ◽  
C Sujatha ◽  
Prakash R Patil ◽  
Padmashree Desai

Abstract Weed management has a vital role in applications of agriculture domain. One of the key tasks is to identify the weeds after few days of plant germination which helps the farmers to perform early-stage weed management to reduce the contrary impacts on crop growth. Thus, we aim to classify the seedlings of crop and weed species. In this work, we propose a plant seedlings classification using the benchmark plant seedlings dataset. The dataset contains the images of 12 different species where three belongs to plant species and the other nine belongs to weed species. We implement the classification framework using three different deep convolutional neural network architectures, namely ResNet50V2, MobileNetV2 and EfficientNetB0. We train the models using transfer learning and compare the performance of each model on a test dataset of 833 images. We compare the three models and demonstrate that the EfficientNetB0 performs better with an average F1-Score of 96.26% and an accuracy of 96.52%.

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