right ventricle
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 856-862
Thu Thuy Vu ◽  
Van Thach Nguyen ◽  
Quang Thai Tran ◽  
Minh Hanh Ngo Thi ◽  
Thanh Hoa Do ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Matthieu Petit ◽  
Edouard Jullien ◽  
Antoine Vieillard-Baron

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by protein-rich alveolar edema, reduced lung compliance and severe hypoxemia. Despite some evidence of improvements in mortality over recent decades, ARDS remains a major public health problem with 30% 28-day mortality in recent cohorts. Pulmonary vascular dysfunction is one of the pivot points of the pathophysiology of ARDS, resulting in a certain degree of pulmonary hypertension, higher levels of which are associated with morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary hypertension develops as a result of endothelial dysfunction, pulmonary vascular occlusion, increased vascular tone, extrinsic vessel occlusion, and vascular remodeling. This increase in right ventricular (RV) afterload causes uncoupling between the pulmonary circulation and RV function. Without any contractile reserve, the right ventricle has no adaptive reserve mechanism other than dilatation, which is responsible for left ventricular compression, leading to circulatory failure and worsening of oxygen delivery. This state, also called severe acute cor pulmonale (ACP), is responsible for excess mortality. Strategies designed to protect the pulmonary circulation and the right ventricle in ARDS should be the cornerstones of the care and support of patients with the severest disease, in order to improve prognosis, pending stronger evidence. Acute cor pulmonale is associated with higher driving pressure (≥18 cmH2O), hypercapnia (PaCO2 ≥ 48 mmHg), and hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 150 mmHg). RV protection should focus on these three preventable factors identified in the last decade. Prone positioning, the setting of positive end-expiratory pressure, and inhaled nitric oxide (INO) can also unload the right ventricle, restore better coupling between the right ventricle and the pulmonary circulation, and correct circulatory failure. When all these strategies are insufficient, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which improves decarboxylation and oxygenation and enables ultra-protective ventilation by decreasing driving pressure, should be discussed in seeking better control of RV afterload. This review reports the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension in ARDS, describes right heart function, and proposes an RV protective approach, ranging from ventilatory settings and prone positioning to INO and selection of patients potentially eligible for veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO).

Ryosuke Kowatari ◽  
Kazuyuki Daitoku ◽  
Shiho Yamazaki ◽  
Masahito Minakawa

Nguyen Thai Minh ◽  
Nguyen Sinh Hien ◽  
Le Quang Thien ◽  
Nguyen Hoang Ha ◽  
Nguyen Dang Hung ◽  

Objective: Different techniques have been described to repair post myocardial infarction ventricular septal rupture (VSR), each method may result in residual shunting, bleeding, and post-operative mortality. The aim of this report is to describe early results of extended sandwich technique through right ventricle in 20 consecutive patients. Patients and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study on 20 patients underwent surgery for myocardial infarction VSR by extended sandwich technique through right ventricle from 12/2018 to 3/2021 in Hanoi Heart Hospital. Result: 20 consecutive patients (10 women and 10 men) with postinfarction ventricular septal rupture (mean age 72 years, range 48-84) underwent surgical repair for by extended sandwich technique performed through right ventricle from December 2018 to August 2021 in our institute. Reconstruction of the septum was performed by two patches according to the method described by Asai et al. The mean aortic clamp time was 101. The mean extracorporeal circulation time was 143 min. Postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay averaged 4 days (range, 1-10 days). There was 30% hospital mortality. 10% postoperative residual shunting was detected, and no patient needed reoperation for bleeding. Conclusion: This method of extended sandwich technique through right ventricle was safe, simple, and it could be performed in acute phase of myocardial infarction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Gintare Neverauskaite-Piliponiene ◽  
Kristijonas Cesas ◽  
Darius Pranys ◽  
Skaidrius Miliauskas ◽  
Lina Padervinskiene ◽  

Abstract Background Pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a fatal disease in which tumour cells embolize to the pulmonary vasculature leading to pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Early diagnosis is essential for timely treatment which can reduce intimal pulmonary vascular proliferation and prolong survival, improve the symptoms. Due to rare occurrences and no clear diagnostic guidelines the disorder usually is found post-mortem. We present a review of this rare disease and a case of post-mortem diagnosed pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy in a young female. Case presentation 51 years old woman presented with progressively worsening dyspnea, right ventricular failure signs and symptoms. Computerized tomography denied pulmonary embolism. 2D transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated right ventricle dilatation and dysfunction, severely increased systolic pulmonary pressure. Right heart catheterization revealed pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension with mean pulmonary artery pressure of 78 mmHg, pulmonary wedge pressure of 15 mmHg, reduced cardiac output to 1.78 L/min with a calculated pulmonary vascular resistance of 35 Wood units, and extremely low oxygen saturation (26%) in pulmonary artery. Because of worsening ascites, pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was performed, tumours in both ovaries were diagnosed. Due to the high operative risk, detailed tumour diagnosis surgically was not established. The patient developed progressive cardiorespiratory failure, unresponsive to optimal heart failure drug treatment. A postmortem morphology analyses revealed tumorous masses in pre-capillary lung vessels, right ventricle hypertrophy, ovary adenocarcinoma. Conclusions An early diagnosis of PTTM is essential. Most cases are lethal due to respiratory failure progressing rapidly. Patients with a history of malignancy, symptoms and signs implying of PH should be considered of having PTTM. If detected early enough, combination of chemotherapy with specific PH therapy is believed to be beneficial in reducing intimal proliferation and prolonging survival, along with improving the symptoms.

Samira Saraya ◽  
Yousra Mahmoud Ahmad ◽  
Ragab Hani Donkol ◽  
Hazem Hamed Soliman ◽  
Reem Ibrahim Ismail ◽  

Abstract Background The term of Double-outlet right ventricle (DORV) is used to describe a spectrum of complex congenital cardiac malformations where anomalies of the ventriculo-arterial alignment are noted where both great arteries (pulmonary artery and aorta) originate completely or predominantly from the right ventricle. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of electrocardiography (ECG) gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in preoperative assessment of DORV and its associated malformations, providing key anatomic parameters that affect surgical planning. Results A total of 50 patients diagnosed by echocardiography with DORV referred from our institute between September 2018 and August 2020 were enrolled. The location of the ventricular septal defect (VSD) to the great vessels and the alignment of the great vessels to each other as well as other associated malformations that affect the surgical planning were assessed by MDCT. The patients were retrospectively classified into subgroups according to the relative positions of the great arteries, the relationship between the great arteries and the VSD, and the presence of associated malformations according to the classification of Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. The diagnostic value of MDCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in evaluation of associated cardiac malformations apart from double outlet right ventricle was compared in 20 patients, whom surgeries were performed and surgical results were obtained. Fallot type of DORV was the most common clinical type which represented 48% of the patients in which the VSD is committed to the aorta. The second most common clinical type was Taussig–Bing anomaly which represented 30% of the patients and the VSD was seen committed to the pulmonary artery. The atrio-ventricular septal defect (AVSD)/uni-ventricular type represented 16% of the patients in the current study, with pulmonary and systemic venous anomalies, heterotaxy syndrome and situs anomalies were commonly associated. A total of 53 malformations apart from DORV were found in 20 patients whom performed surgical interventions. MDCT detected different vascular and situs anomalies in those patients with 100% sensitivity and 100% positive predictive value compared to 71.4% and 94% respectively in TTE. On the other hand, in our study TTE was superior to MDCT for detection of intracardiac anomalies with 100% sensitivity and 100% accuracy compared to 87.5% and 95% respectively in MDCT. Conclusions Our study suggested that ECG gated MDCT serves as a rapid, noninvasive imaging modality with good spatial resolution and provides excellent diagnostic image quality and has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative assessment of DORV. It is superior to echocardiography in providing a comprehensive mapping of the anatomy of complex anomalies especially that of extra-cardiac structures such as aorta, systemic veins, pulmonary veins, and pulmonary arteries. However, it can miss tiny intracardiac malformations. So combining the results of MDCT and echocardiography would be beneficial to guarantee the accuracy of diagnosis of DORV.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Bharat Paliwal ◽  
Neha Goyal ◽  
Manoj Kamal ◽  
Rakesh Kumar

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