BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1471-2261, 1471-2261
Updated Sunday, 28 November 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhiyan Shen ◽  
Kun Xia ◽  
Xinfeng Liu ◽  
Rongpin Wang

Abstract Background Coronary artery fistula refers to an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and great vessel, a cardiac chamber or other structure. The left circumflex artery (LCX) pericardia fistula combined with huge pseudoaneurysm is extremely rare. Case presentation A 39-year-old young female was admitted into our hospital because of palpitation and shortness of breath. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) showed a huge pseudoaneurysm located in pericardium. Coronary angiography revealed the LCX pericardia fistula. Then surgical treatment was performed. She was in good condition without complications after surgery. Conclusions Coronary artery fistula combined with pseudoaneurysm can be caused by congenital factors. Early surgical treatment can relieve the patient's symptoms and prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Valentina V. Miroshnikova ◽  
Alexandra A. Panteleeva ◽  
Irina A. Pobozheva ◽  
Natalia D. Razgildina ◽  
Ekaterina A. Polyakova ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Recent studies have focused on the potential role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). ABCA1 and ABCG1 transporters regulate cell cholesterol content and reverse cholesterol transport. We aimed to determine whether DNA methylation and mRNA levels of the ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes in EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were associated with CAD. Methods Paired EAT and SAT samples were collected from 82 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery either for coronary artery bypass grafting (CAD group, N = 66) or valve surgery (NCAD group, N = 16). ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA levels in EAT and SAT samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction, ABCA1 protein levels in EAT samples were assessed by western blotting. ABCA1 and ABCG1 DNA methylation analysis was performed in 24 samples from the CAD group and 9 samples from the NCAD group via pyrosequencing. Results DNA methylation levels in the ABCA1 promoter and ABCG1 cg27243685 and cg06500161 CpG sites were higher in EAT samples from patients with CAD compared with NCAD (21.92% vs 10.81%, p = 0.003; 71.51% vs 68.42%, p = 0.024; 46.11% vs 37.79%, p = 0.016, respectively). In patients with CAD, ABCA1 and ABCG1 DNA methylation levels were higher in EAT than in SAT samples (p < 0.05). ABCA1 mRNA levels in EAT samples were reduced in the subgroup of patients with CAD and concomitant carotid artery disease or peripheral artery disease compared with the NCAD group (p = 0.024). ABCA1 protein levels in EAT samples tended to be lower in CAD patients than in the NCAD group (p = 0.053). DNA methylation levels at the ABCG1 cg27243685 site positively correlated with plasma triglyceride concentration (r = 0.510, p = 0.008), body mass index (r = 0.556, p = 0.013) and waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.504, p = 0.012) in SAT samples. Conclusion CAD is associated with ABCA1 and ABCG1 DNA hypermethylation in EAT. CAD with concomitant carotid artery disease or peripheral artery disease is accompanied by decreased ABCA1 gene expression in EAT. DNA methylation levels at the ABCG1 cg27243685 locus in SAT are associated with hypertriglyceridemia and obesity.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shucai Wang ◽  
Jiazheng Zhao ◽  
Chanchan Wang ◽  
Ning Zhang

Abstract Background The diagnosis of malignant pericardial effusion (MPE) is often associated with a poor prognosis, but due to the complexity and unspecific nature of MPE patients' clinical manifestations, imaging often performs an essential role in diagnosis and prognosis. Methods Patients diagnosed with MPE between 2013 and 2018 at one tumor hospital were included and followed up. The data covered the basic clinical features, imaging findings, treatments and prognosis of patients with MPE, and the factors that may have affected the prognosis were explored. Results A total of 216 patients with MPE were included with the median age of 60 years. The most common primary cancer type was lung cancer (73.6%), the most common symptom was dyspnea (62.9%) and the most common abnormal electrocardiogram finding was sinus tachycardia (42.1%). The median survival time of the 216 patients with MPE was 13.7 months. The factors affecting prognosis were echocardiographic fluid signs (HR = 2.37, P = 0.010), electrocardiographic evidence of sinus tachycardia (HR = 1.76, P = 0.006) and echocardiographic evidence of cardiac tamponade (HR = 3.33, P < 0.001). Conclusions MPE has complex clinical manifestations and an unsatisfactory prognosis. Echocardiographic fluid signs, electrocardiographic evidence of sinus tachycardia, and echocardiographic evidence of cardiac tamponade are independent risk factors affecting prognosis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hamid Sharif Nia ◽  
Ozkan Gorgulu ◽  
Navaz Naghavi ◽  
Erika Sivarajan Froelicher ◽  
Fatemeh Khoshnavay Fomani ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Although various studies have been conducted on the effects of seasonal climate changes or emotional variables on the risk of AMI, many of them have limitations to determine the predictable model. The currents study is conducted to assess the effects of meteorological and emotional variables on the incidence and epidemiological occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Sari (capital of Mazandaran, Iran) during 2011–2018. Methods In this study, a time series analysis was used to determine the variation of variables over time. All series were seasonally adjusted and Poisson regression analysis was performed. In the analysis of meteorological data and emotional distress due to religious mourning events, the best results were obtained by autoregressive moving average (ARMA) (5,5) model. Results It was determined that average temperature, sunshine, and rain variables had a significant effect on death. A total of 2375 AMI’s were enrolled. Average temperate (°C) and sunshine hours a day (h/day) had a statistically significant relationship with the number of AMI’s (β = 0.011, P = 0.014). For every extra degree of temperature increase, the risk of AMI rose [OR = 1.011 (95%CI 1.00, 1.02)]. For every extra hour of sunshine, a day a statistically significant increase [OR = 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.04)] in AMI risk occurred (β = 0.025, P = 0.001). Religious mourning events increase the risk of AMI 1.05 times more. The other independent variables have no significant effects on AMI’s (P > 0.05). Conclusion Results demonstrate that sunshine hours and the average temperature had a significant effect on the risk of AMI. Moreover, emotional distress due to religious morning events increases AMI. More specific research on this topic is recommended.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Oktay Şenöz ◽  
Zeynep Yapan Emren

Abstract Background Although the incidence of myocardial bridge (MB) has been defined in different femoral access conventional coronary angiography (FACCA) studies, the frequency of MB on radial access coronary angiography (RACA) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the difference in the incidence of MB between patients undergoing RACA and FACCA. Method A total of 2500 consecutive patients who underwent RACA and a total of 1455 consecutive patients who underwent FACCA were retrospectively investigated to detect the presence of MB. The incidences of the groups were calculated separately and compared. The clinical and angiographic features of the patients with MB were analyzed. Results MB was detected at an incidence of 10.2%, in 255/2500 patients who underwent RACA, and 1.8% in 27/1455 patients who underwent FACCA (p < 0.001). In both RACA and FACCA patients, the most involved coronary artery was the left anterior descending artery (LAD) (86.9% and 93.1%) and the mid-segment (84.9% and 88.9%) was the most affected section. Co-involvement of multiple coronary arteries by MB was 7.8% in patients who underwent RACA and 7.4% in patients who underwent FACCA. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was determined in 111 (35.7%) of the coronary arteries with MB, of which 81.9% were proximal to the MB. No significant CAD was detected in any of the vessels of 69.8% (178/255) of the patients who underwent RACA for different clinical indications. Conclusion These data demonstrated that the incidence of myocardial bridge able to be detected on RACA was much higher than FACCA.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Meganne N. Ferrel ◽  
Sentia Iriana ◽  
I. Raymond Thomason ◽  
Christy L. Ma ◽  
Katsiaryna Tsarova ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Constrictive pericarditis (CP) is characterized by scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium. This case demonstrates that mixed martial arts (MMA) is a previously unrecognized risk factor for CP, diagnosis of which is supported by cardiac imaging, right and left heart catheterization, and histological findings of dense fibrous tissue without chronic inflammation. Case presentation A 47-year-old Caucasian male former mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter from the Western United States presented to liver clinic for elevated liver injury tests (LIT) and a 35-pound weight loss with associated diarrhea, lower extremity edema, dyspnea on exertion, and worsening fatigue over a period of 6 months. Past medical history includes concussion, right bundle branch block, migraine headache, hypertension, chronic pain related to musculoskeletal injuries and fractures secondary to MMA competition. Involvement in MMA was extensive with an 8-year history of professional MMA competition and 13-year history of MMA fighting with recurrent trauma to the chest wall. The patient also reported a 20-year history of performance enhancing drugs including testosterone. Physical exam was notable for elevated jugular venous pressure, hepatomegaly, and trace peripheral edema. An extensive workup was performed including laboratory studies, abdominal computerized tomography, liver biopsy, echocardiogram, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, right and left heart catheterization—the gold standard—confirmed discordance of the right ventricle-left ventricle, consistent with constrictive physiology. Pericardiectomy was performed with histologic evidence of chronic pericarditis. The patient’s hospital course was uncomplicated and he returned to NYHA functional class I. Conclusions CP can be a sequela of recurrent pericarditis or hemorrhagic effusions and may have a delayed presentation. In cases of recurrent trauma, CP may be managed with pericardiectomy with apparent good outcome. Further studies are warranted to analyze the occurrence of CP in MMA so as to better define the risk in such adults.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shiqiang Zhou ◽  
Chao Gao ◽  
Fei Li

Abstract Background Takayasu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the aorta and its major branches. Acute myocardial infarction rarely but not so much presents in patients with Takayasu arteritis, and the preferable revascularization strategy is still under debate. Case presentation A 22-year-old female with Takayasu arteritis presented with acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography and intravenous ultrasound (IVUS) showed that the right coronary artery (RCA) was occluded and that there was severe negative remodelling at the ostium of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). The patient was treated by primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with a scoring balloon in the LMCA, without stent implantation. After 3 months of immunosuppressive medication, the patient received RCA revascularization by stenting. There was progressive external elastic membrane (EEM) enlargement of the LMCA ostium demonstrated by IVUS at 3 and 15 months post-initial PTCA. Conclusion Here, we report a case of Takayasu arteritis with involvement of the coronary artery ostium. Through PTCA and long-term immunosuppressive medication, we found that coronary negative remodelling might be reversible in patients with Takayasu arteritis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tieyan Li ◽  
Lin Zou ◽  
Yunzhen Feng ◽  
Guoliang Fan ◽  
Yuanfeng Xin

Abstract Background Aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) with associated Kommerell diverticulum (KD) is a rare congenital aortic disease. KD patients have a high risk of rupture, dissection, and compression of adjacent structures. Although several treatment options have been proposed (traditional surgery, hybrid operation, and endovascular intervention), a consensus regarding optimal surgical management has not yet been established. Case presentation A case of successful hybrid repair of distal aortic arch dissection aneurysm by dissecting KD and ARSA with debranching of right and left common carotid arteries, left subclavian artery, and stent grafting was presented. Conclusions The hybrid operation is suitable for elderly patients or those with high risks. Along with intervention, the hybrid operation needs to be developed as a minimally invasive method.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Özge Ozden Tok ◽  
Ignatios Ikonomidis ◽  
Konstantinos Papadopoulos ◽  
Ömer Göktekin ◽  
Gülsüm Bingöl ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Myocardial crypts are discrete, narrow, blood filled invaginations within the left ventricular myocardium and high-take-off coronary artery are rare manifestations where coronary arteries originate above the sinotubuler junction. Case presentation A 41-year-old man with multiple coronary artery disease risk factors admitted to our outpatient department with progressive dyspnea and atypical chest pain. Physical examination revealed no pathological findings. His blood examination revealed only mild to moderately high IgE and LDL levels. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was normal. His treadmill test was normal, yet in the 3rd stage of the test he had an atypically located chest pain which was relieved in the resting period. As he had multiple cardiovascular risk factors, we performed a coronary CT angiography to exclude coronary artery disease. Coronary CT angiography(CCTA) demonstrated multiple myocardial crypts, a muscular VSD like defect which were not detectable with TTE and a high take off left main coronary artery (LMCA). After CCTA, we repeated the TTE to investigate the crypts and VSD-like defect which were clear on CCTA, yet a precise TTE hardly showed crypts and didn’t confirm a shunt between the left and right ventricle. We defined the defect as ‘spontaneously closed muscular VSD’. None of these pathologies were clinically relevant with the patient’s symptoms, thus pneumonology started a montelukast therapy for 1 year and we decided to follow up the patient, as multiple crypts may indicate an early phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Conclusions Considering that a high take-off LMCA is a congenital anomaly, encountering multiple crypts which are also congenital pathologies, is plausible, as congenital anomalies may accompany eachother. Echocardiography is a very useful, practical imaging tool but regrettably may be suboptimal due to various patient and method related reasons. Target combination of different cardiovascular imaging tools like echocardiography, cardiac CT(CCT), may be utilized in order to ensure a comprehensive diagnosis particularly.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Wenxia Fu ◽  
Ruogu Li

Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac dysrhythmia with high morbidity and mortality rate. Evidence shows that in every three patients with AF, one is asymptomatic. The asymptomatic and paroxysmal nature of AF is the reason for unsatisfactory and delayed detection using traditional instruments. Research indicates that wearing a dynamic electrocardiogram (ECG) recorder can guide accurate and safe analysis, interpretation, and distinction of AF from normal sinus rhythm. This is also achievable in an upright position and after exercises, assisted by an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm. Methods This study enrolled 114 participants from the outpatient registry of our institution from June 24, 2020 to July 24, 2020. Participants were tested with a wearable dynamic ECG recorder and 12-lead ECG in a supine, an upright position and after exercises for 60 s. Results Of the 114 subjects enrolled in the study, 61 had normal sinus rhythm and 53 had AF. The number of cases that could not be determined by the wristband of dynamic ECG recorder was two, one and one respectively. Case results that were not clinically objective were defined as false-negative or false-positive. Results for diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity tested by wearable dynamic ECG recorders in a supine position were 94.74% (95% CI% 88.76–97.80%), 88.68% (95% CI 77.06–95.07%), and 100% (95% CI 92.91–100%), respectively. Meanwhile, the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in an upright position were 97.37% (95% CI 92.21–99.44%), 94.34% (95% CI 84.03–98.65%), and 100% (95% CI 92.91–100%), respectively. Similar results as those of the upright position were obtained after exercise. Conclusion The widely accessible wearable dynamic ECG recorder integrated with an AI algorithm can efficiently detect AF in different postures and after exercises. As such, this tool holds great promise as a useful and user-friendly screening method for timely AF diagnosis in at-risk individuals.


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