In this study, the inhibitory activities against human monoamine oxidases (hMAOs) were evaluated using a library of 195 endogenous lichen fungi from Ukraine. Among them, the extract ELF68 of the endogenous fungus Rosellinia corticium from the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity against hMAO-A. Using the activity-guided method, (S)-5-methylmellein (5MM) was isolated from the extract and had an IC50 value of 5.31 µM for hMAO-A with a lower potency for hMAO-B (IC50 = 9.15 µM). Compound 5MM also moderately inhibited acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 27.07 µM) but very weakly inhibited butyrylcholinesterase and β-secretase. Compound 5MM had a Ki value of 2.45 μM and was a reversible competitive inhibitor of hMAO-A. A molecular docking study predicted that (S)-5MM showed higher binding affinity for hMAO-A (−6.8 kcal/mol) than hMAO-B (−6.4 kcal/mol). Its isomer, (R)-5MM, exhibited lower binding affinities for hMAO-A (−6.6 kcal/mol) and hMAO-B (−5.2 kcal/mol), compared to (S)-5MM. The S-form interacted with hMAO-A through hydrogen bonding with the Phe208 residue (distance: 1.972 Å), while the R-form interacted with the Asn181 residue (2.375 Å). The results of an in silico pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that 5MM did not violate Lipinski’s five rules and showed high gastrointestinal absorption and blood–brain barrier permeability. These results suggest that 5MM can be considered a candidate in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and cardiovascular disease.
Piperine (PIP) is an active alkaloid of black and long peppers. An increasing amount of evidence is suggesting that PIP and its metabolite’s could be a potential therapeutic to intervene different disease conditions including chronic inflammation, cardiac and hepatic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In addition, the omnipresence of PIP in food and beverages made this compound an important investigational material. It has now become essential to understand PIP pharmacology and toxicology to determine its merits and demerits, especially its effect on the central nervous system (CNS). Although several earlier reports documented that PIP has poor pharmacokinetic properties, such as absorption, bioavailability, and blood–brain barrier permeability. However, its interaction with metabolic enzyme cytochrome P450 superfamily and competitive hydrophobic interaction at Monoamine oxide B (MAO-B) active site have made PIP both a xenobiotics bioenhancer and a potential MAO-B inhibitor. Moreover, recent advancements in pharmaceutical technology have overcome several of PIP’s limitations, including bioavailability and blood–brain barrier permeability, even at low doses. Contrarily, the structure activity relationship (SAR) study of PIP suggesting that its several metabolites are reactive and plausibly responsible for acute toxicity or have pharmacological potentiality. Considering the importance of PIP and its metabolites as an emerging drug target, this study aims to combine the current knowledge of PIP pharmacology and biochemistry with neurodegenerative and neurological disease therapy.
Neurotrophins are a collection of structurally and functionally related proteins. They play important roles in many aspects of neural development, survival, and plasticity. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to different levels of central nervous tissue destruction and cellular repair through various compensatory mechanisms promoted by the injured brain. Many studies have shown that neurotrophins are key modulators of neuroinflammation, apoptosis, blood–brain barrier permeability, memory capacity, and neurite regeneration. The expression of neurotrophins following TBI is affected by the severity of injury, genetic polymorphism, and different post-traumatic time points. Emerging research is focused on the potential therapeutic applications of neurotrophins in managing TBI. We conducted a comprehensive review by organizing the studies that demonstrate the role of neurotrophins in the management of TBI.
AbstractTissue plasminogen activator's (tPA) fibrinolytic function in the vasculature is well-established. This specific role for tPA in the vasculature, however, contrasts with its pleiotropic activities in the central nervous system. Numerous physiological and pathological functions have been attributed to tPA in the central nervous system, including neurite outgrowth and regeneration; synaptic and spine plasticity; neurovascular coupling; neurodegeneration; microglial activation; and blood–brain barrier permeability. In addition, multiple substrates, both plasminogen-dependent and -independent, have been proposed to be responsible for tPA's action(s) in the central nervous system. This review aims to dissect a subset of these different functions and the different molecular mechanisms attributed to tPA in the context of learning and memory. We start from the original research that identified tPA as an immediate-early gene with a putative role in synaptic plasticity to what is currently known about tPA's role in a learning and memory disorder, Alzheimer's disease. We specifically focus on studies demonstrating tPA's involvement in the clearance of amyloid-β and neurovascular coupling. In addition, given that tPA has been shown to regulate blood–brain barrier permeability, which is perturbed in Alzheimer's disease, this review also discusses tPA-mediated vascular dysfunction and possible alternative mechanisms of action for tPA in Alzheimer's disease pathology.