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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 947-952
Jun Zhang ◽  
Yuying Gao ◽  
Peng Chen ◽  
Yu Zhou ◽  
Sheng Guo ◽  

This study was to explore the mechanism by how exosomes (exo) derived from BMSCs affects cardiomyocyte apoptosis. BMSCs were isolated and incubated with cardiomyocytes while the cardiomyocytes were exposed to sevoflurane or DMSO treatment. Apoptotic cells were calculated and level of apoptosis related proteins was detected by Western blot. Through transfection with microRNA-(miRNA)-312 inhibitor, we evaluated the effect of BMSC-exo on the sevoflurane-induced apoptosis. Sevoflurane significantly inhibited the viability of cardiomyocytes and induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Besides, sevoflurane decreased the expression of miR-312 and enhanced Bax expression in cardiomyocytes through restraining the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK. Treatment with BMSC-exo, however, activated MAPK/ERK signaling by up-regulating miR-312, thereby inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation, and elevating the level of Bcl-2. In conclusion, BMSC-exo-derived miR-312 inhibits sevoflurane-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 306-315
Jie Song ◽  
Cheng Chen ◽  
Hui Zhang

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic and inflammatory disease, leading to pain or even disability in severe cases. LncRNA PCGEM1 (PCGEM1) is reported to be dysregulated, serving as critical regulators in various human diseases, including OA. However, the biological role of PCGEM1 and its underlying mechanisms during OA remained unclear. In the present study, CHON-001 cells were exposed to interleukin (IL)-1β to construct the OA cell model. Expression of PCGEM1 and miR-152-3p in cells was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. Corresponding commercial kits were used to measure the expressions of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), inter-leukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Protein levels of apoptosis-related proteins, cleaved-Caspase3 and Caspase3, were detected by Western blotting. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium (MTT) and flow cytometry assays were utilized for the determination of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The association between PCGEN1 and miR-152-3p was confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. From the results, PCGEM1 expression was significantly increased while miR-152-3p was inhibited in CHON-001 cells after IL-1β treatment. In addition, silencing of PCGEM1 could promote proliferation, inhibit the apoptosis, suppress LDH level and alleviate inflammation response caused by IL-1β in CHON-001 cells by sponging miR-152-3p. In a word, PCGEM1 down-regulation suppressed OA progression by the regulation of miR-152-3p expression, functioning as a potential therapeutic target for OA clinical treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 365-372
Chunhong Song ◽  
Juan Zhen ◽  
Aihua Gong ◽  
Longying Zhang

Background: The Cripto-1 (CR-1)/glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) complex was involved in enhancing survival in different types of cells. CR-1 presented increased levels in ovarian carcinoma tissue. However, the potential mechanism of CR-1/GRP78 was unclear in ovarian cancer. Thus, the study aimed to analyze the role of CR-1/GRP78 in ovarian carcinoma cells. Methods and materials: The CR-1 and GRP78 expression in different ovarian cancer cell lines were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot (WB). Immunoprecipitation assay was performed to analyze whether Cripto-1 interacted with GRP78. The CR-1 interfering plasmids or GRP-78 overexpressing plasmids transfected into cells were used to decrease endogenous CR-1 levels and increase GRP-78 levels. Cell clonogenicity and proliferation capabilities were separately evaluated by clone growth assay, along with the detection of cell migration and invasion abilities by transwell and wound healing assay. In addition, Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) levels were detected by WB. The cell apoptosis was analyzed by Flow Cytometer and the detection of apoptosis-related proteins. Results: The results showed that CR-1 and GRP78 levels were higher in SKOV3 than other cell lines. Furthermore, CR-1 interacted with GRP78 in cells, which formed protein complex. CR-1 silence significantly decreased GRP-78 levels. Moreover, GRP78 overexpression blocked the anti-survival effects caused by CR-1 knockdown. Conclusion: CR-1 silence inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis via GRP78. It replied that GRP-78 overexpression might enhance the biological functions of CR-1/GRP78 complex ameliorated by CR-1 silence. Thus, CR-1/GRP78 could be a potential target for treating ovarian carcinoma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Saad Mohamed Asseri ◽  
Nehal M. Elsherbiny ◽  
Mohamed El-Sherbiny ◽  
Iman O. Sherif ◽  
Alsamman M. Alsamman ◽  

AbstractThe burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) and associated complications is increasing worldwide, affecting many organ functionalities including submandibular glands (SMG). The present study aims to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) on diabetes-induced SMG damage. Experimental evaluation of GA treatment was conducted on a rat model of type I diabetes. Animals were assigned to three groups; control, diabetic and GA treated diabetic groups. After 8 weeks, the SMG was processed for assessment of oxidative stress markers, autophagy related proteins; LC3, Beclin-1 and P62, vascular regulator ET-1, aquaporins (AQPs 1.4 and 5), SIRT1 protein expressions in addition to LC3 and AQP5 mRNA expressions. Also, parenchymal structures of the SMG were examined. GA alleviated the diabetes-induced SMG damage via restoring the SMG levels of oxidative stress markers and ET-1 almost near to the normal levels most probably via regulation of SIRT1, AQPs and accordingly LC-3, P62 and Beclin-1levels. GA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetes-induced SMG damage via regulating oxidative stress, autophagy and angiogenesis.

Bazhena Bahatyrevich-Kharitonik ◽  
Rafael Medina-Guzman ◽  
Alicia Flores-Cortes ◽  
Marta García-Cruzado ◽  
Edel Kavanagh ◽  

Cell death related (CDR) proteins are a diverse group of proteins whose original function was ascribed to apoptotic cell death signaling. Recently, descriptions of non-apoptotic functions for CDR proteins have increased. In this minireview, we comment on recent studies of CDR proteins outside the field of apoptosis in the CNS, encompassing areas such as the inflammasome and non-apoptotic cell death, cytoskeleton reorganization, synaptic plasticity, mitophagy, neurodegeneration and calcium signaling among others. Furthermore, we discuss the evolution of proteomic techniques used to predict caspase substrates that could potentially explain their non-apoptotic roles. Finally, we address new concepts in the field of non-apoptotic functions of CDR proteins that require further research such the effect of sexual dimorphism on non-apoptotic CDR protein function and the emergence of zymogen-specific caspase functions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 891
Wenjie Yue ◽  
Haobin Zhang ◽  
Xuming Sun ◽  
Ning Su ◽  
Qi Zhao ◽  

Autophagy is an indispensable biological process and plays crucial roles in plant growth and plant responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This study systematically identified autophagy-related proteins (ATGs) in wheat and its diploid and tetraploid progenitors and investigated their genomic organization, structure characteristics, expression patterns, genetic variation, and regulation network. We identified a total of 77, 51, 29, and 30 ATGs in wheat, wild emmer, T. urartu and A. tauschii, respectively, and grouped them into 19 subfamilies. We found that these autophagy-related genes (ATGs) suffered various degrees of selection during the wheat’s domestication and breeding processes. The genetic variations in the promoter region of Ta2A_ATG8a were associated with differences in seed size, which might be artificially selected for during the domestication process of tetraploid wheat. Overexpression of TaVAMP727 improved the cold, drought, and salt stresses resistance of the transgenic Arabidopsis and wheat. It also promoted wheat heading by regulating the expression of most ATGs. Our findings demonstrate how ATGs regulate wheat plant development and improve abiotic stress resistance. The results presented here provide the basis for wheat breeding programs for selecting varieties of higher yield which are capable of growing in colder, drier, and saltier areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0009192
Michael Weingartner ◽  
Simon Stücheli ◽  
Fadi Jebbawi ◽  
Bruno Gottstein ◽  
Guido Beldi ◽  

Background Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a rising zoonotic disease in the northern hemisphere. Treatment of this fatal disease is limited to chemotherapy using benzimidazoles and surgical intervention, with frequent disease recurrence in cases without radical surgery. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying E. multilocularis infections and host-parasite interactions ultimately aids developing novel therapeutic options. This study explored an involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum-stress (ERS) during E. multilocularis infection in mice. Methods E. multilocularis- and mock-infected C57BL/6 mice were subdivided into vehicle, albendazole (ABZ) and anti-programmed death ligand 1 (αPD-L1) treated groups. To mimic a chronic infection, treatments of mice started six weeks post i.p. infection and continued for another eight weeks. Liver tissue was then collected to examine inflammatory cytokines and the expression of UPR- and ERS-related genes. Results E. multilocularis infection led to an upregulation of UPR- and ERS-related proteins in the liver, including ATF6, CHOP, GRP78, ERp72, H6PD and calreticulin, whilst PERK and its target eIF2α were not affected, and IRE1α and ATF4 were downregulated. ABZ treatment in E. multilocularis infected mice reversed, or at least tended to reverse, these protein expression changes to levels seen in mock-infected mice. Furthermore, ABZ treatment reversed the elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ in the liver of infected mice. Similar to ABZ, αPD-L1 immune-treatment tended to reverse the increased CHOP and decreased ATF4 and IRE1α expression levels. Conclusions and significance AE caused chronic inflammation, UPR activation and ERS in mice. The E. multilocularis-induced inflammation and consecutive ERS was ameliorated by ABZ and αPD-L1 treatment, indicating their effectiveness to inhibit parasite proliferation and downregulate its activity status. Neither ABZ nor αPD-L1 themselves affected UPR in control mice. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between inflammation, UPR and ERS, and if these pathways offer potential for improved therapies of patients with AE.

Dairy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-58
Lina Zhang ◽  
Sjef Boeren ◽  
Jeroen Heck ◽  
Jacques Vervoort ◽  
Peng Zhou ◽  

Milk contains all nutrients needed for development of calves. One important group of components responsible for this are the milk proteins. Variation due to feed or animal health, has been studied for the most abundant milk proteins. The aim of this study was to determine the variation between and within cows for their milk serum proteome. Sample Set 1 was collected from Holstein Friesian (HF) cows between November 2011 and March 2012 and prepared using filter aided sample preparation (FASP) followed by LC-MS/MS for protein identification and quantification. The results showed that the milk serum proteome was very constant in mid lactation (four cows at five time points, p > 0.05) between 3 and 6 months in lactation. Sample Set 2 was collected from HF cows in Dec 2012 and analyzed using FASP and dimethyl labeling followed by LC-MS/MS. Significant variation in the milk serum proteome (p < 0.05) between 17 individual cows was found in Sample Set 2. The most variable proteins were immune-related proteins, which may reflect the health status of the individual cow. On the other hand, proteins related to nutrient synthesis and transport were relatively constant, indicating the importance of milk in providing a stable supply of nutrients to the neonate. In conclusion, the milk serum proteome was stable over mid lactation, but differed significantly between individuals, especially in immune-related proteins.

2022 ◽  
Kathleen A Trychta ◽  
Brandon K Harvey

Drugs of abuse can cause local and systemic hyperthermia, a known trigger of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Another trigger of ER stress and UPR is ER calcium depletion which causes ER exodosis, the secretion of ER resident proteins. Club drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) can create hyperthermic conditions in the brain and cause toxicity that is affected by the environmental temperature and the presence of other drugs, such as caffeine. Here we examine the secretion of ER resident proteins and activation of the UPR under combined exposure to MDMA and caffeine in a cellular model of hyperthermia. We show that hyperthermia triggers the secretion of normally ER resident proteins and that this aberrant protein secretion is potentiated by the presence of MDMA, caffeine, or a combination of the two drugs. Hyperthermia activates the UPR but the addition of MDMA or caffeine does not alter canonical UPR gene expression despite the drug effects on ER exodosis of UPR-related proteins. One exception was increased BiP/Grp78 mRNA levels in MDMA-treated cells exposed to hyperthermia. These findings suggest that club drug use under hyperthermic conditions exacerbates disruption of ER proteostasis contributing to cellular toxicity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xin Feng ◽  
Yuelin Bi ◽  
Jiaqi Wang ◽  
Tianyi Li ◽  
Gengyuan Yu ◽  

Background: Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction (ZZHPD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, is clinically used to treat insomnia and depression. The analysis strategy based on the concept of co-decoction of TCM is helpful to analyse the effective substances of TCM formula in depth.Aim of the study: This manuscript intends to take ZZHPD as a model sample to explore the phenomenon of co-decoction of complex formula in the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology, data analysis, and molecular docking.Materials and methods: In the current research, an innovative LC-MS method has been established to study the active ingredients in ZZHPD, and to identify the ingredients absorbed into the blood and brain tissues of mice. And molecular docking was used to study the binding pattern and affinities of known compounds of the brain tissue toward insomnia related proteins.Results: Based on new processing methods and analysis strategies, 106 chemical components were identified in ZZHPD, including 28 blood components and 18 brain components. Then, by comparing the different compounds in the co-decoction and single decoction, it was surprisingly found that 125 new ingredients were produced during the co-decoction, 2 of which were absorbed into the blood and 1 of which was absorbed into brain tissue. Ultimately, molecular docking studies showed that 18 brain components of ZZHPD had favourable binding conformation and affinity with GABA, serotonin and melatonin receptors. The docking results of GABRA1 with naringenin and hesperidin, HCRTR1 with naringenin-7-O-glucoside, poncirenin and genipin 1-gentiobioside, and luteolin with SLC6A4, GLO1, MAOB and MTNR1A may clarify the mechanism of action of ZZHPD in treating insomnia and depression.Conclusion: Our study may provide new ideas for further exploring the effective substances in ZZHPD.

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