Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
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Published By Georg Thieme Verlag Kg

1098-9064, 0094-6176
Updated Tuesday, 09 November 2021

Rebecca A.M. Pierce-Williams ◽  
Mona M. Makhamreh ◽  
Sophia Blakey-Cheung ◽  
Zimeng Gao ◽  
Huda B. Al-Kouatly

AbstractType 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common subtype of VWD, comprising 75% of VWD patients. We provide a systematic review of type 1 VWD in pregnancy. Our objective was to evaluate the rate of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in patients with known type 1 VWD. The primary outcome was rate of PPH. Primary PPH was defined as a cumulative blood loss ≥1,000 mL, or blood loss accompanied by signs and symptoms of hypovolemia within 24 hours postpartum or requiring blood products. Secondary PPH was defined as significant bleeding 24 hours to 12 weeks postpartum. Relevant articles published in English pertaining to VWD and pregnancy were identified without any time or study limitations. Seven articles (n = 144 pregnancies) met inclusion criteria. The rate of primary PPH was 4/144 (2.8%). The secondary PPH rate was reported in four studies, and occurred in 7/48 pregnancies (14.6%), ranging from 2 to 19 days postpartum. In conclusion, according to this systematic review, the frequency of primary PPH in pregnancies with known type 1 VWD is 2.8%. This is similar to the overall PPH rates of 3% reported in the literature. Although the sample size was small, secondary PPH occurred in almost 15% of pregnancies, while in the overall obstetrical population this occurs in approximately 1% of cases. Patients with known type 1 VWD may not be at increased risk of primary PPH, though they appear to bear increased risk of secondary PPH.

Youness Limami ◽  
Nezha Senhaji ◽  
Nabil Zaid ◽  
Loubna Khalki ◽  
Abdallah Naya ◽  

Jecko Thachil

AbstractProtamine is now well recognized as a key heparin neutralizing agent. However, protamine was discovered over a century ago, during experiments performed to uncover the secrets behind heritability. Although protamine was discovered as a highly charged protein, it did not receive the attention it deserved until the dawn of insulin era, when it was used to create the neutral protamine Hagedorn formulation. Based on the same principles, protamine was identified to neutralize heparin and has since been used successfully for many years in cardiothoracic surgery. More recently, its clinical applications have extended to gene therapy. In this historical sketch, the journey from the discovery of protamine, onwards to heparin neutralization, and up to its utilization in genetic modulatory treatments is detailed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 47 (08) ◽  
pp. 895-895
Antonella Tufano ◽  
Antonio Coppola ◽  
Massimo Franchini

2021 ◽  
Vol 47 (08) ◽  
pp. 896-898
Massimo Franchini ◽  
Antonella Tufano ◽  
Antonio Coppola

Christine Lodberg Hvas ◽  
Julie Brogaard Larsen ◽  
Kasper Adelborg ◽  
Steffen Christensen ◽  
Anne-Mette Hvas

AbstractPatients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the infectious pathology caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, have a high risk of thrombosis, though the precise mechanisms behind this remain unclarified. A systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE identified 18 prospective studies applying dynamic coagulation assays in ICU COVID-19 patients. Overall, these studies revealed normal or slightly reduced primary hemostasis, prolonged clot initiation, but increased clot firmness. Thrombin generation assay parameters generally were equivalent to the control groups or within reference range. Fibrinolysis assays showed increased clot resistance. Only six studies related their findings to clinical outcome. We also prospectively included 51 COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Blood samples were examined on day 1, 3–4, and 7–8 with platelet function tests, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), in vivo and ex vivo thrombin generation, and clot lysis assay. Data on thrombosis, bleeding, and mortality were recorded during 30 days. Primary hemostasis was comparable to healthy controls, but COVID-19 patients had longer ROTEM-clotting times and higher maximum clot firmness than healthy controls. Ex vivo thrombin generation was similar to that of healthy controls while in vivo thrombin generation markers, thrombin–antithrombin (TAT) complex, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) were higher in ICU COVID-19 patients than in healthy controls. Impaired fibrinolysis was present at all time points. TAT complex and F1 + 2 levels were significantly higher in patients developing thrombosis (n = 16) than in those without. In conclusion, only few previous studies employed dynamic hemostasis assays in COVID-19 ICU-patients and failed to reveal a clear association with development of thrombosis. In ICU COVID-19 patients, we confirmed normal platelet aggregation, while in vivo thrombin generation was increased and fibrinolysis decreased. Thrombosis may be driven by increased thrombin formation in vivo.

Giuseppe Lippi ◽  
Emmanuel J. Favaloro

AbstractDespite the huge efforts globally underway for preventing or limiting the spread of severe acute respiratory coronavirus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak appears still virtually unstoppable. As for many other infectious diseases, COVID-19 vaccination has now become crucial for limiting viral spread, especially for averting hospitalizations, need for intensive care, and fatal outcome. Nonetheless, as for other vaccines, COVID-19 vaccination is not completely free from side effects. Among the adverse events that have been reported after receiving COVID-19 vaccination, special emphasis has been given to an unexpected number of thrombocytopenic episodes with or without thrombotic complications, especially in recipients of adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccines. Along with a specific clinical presentation, encompassing “atypical” thrombosis (especially cerebral venous [sinus] thrombosis, CVT) more prevalent in young female subjects, this new syndrome called vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT) is characterized by, and thereby diagnosed for, the presence of three paradigmatic laboratory abnormalities, i.e., low platelet count (<150 × 109/L), elevated plasma D-dimer levels (>0.5 mg/L), accompanied by a positive test for anti-PF4 (platelet factor 4) antibodies assayed with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) techniques. Timely identification of these important abnormalities by both clinicians and laboratory professional is essential for early diagnosis and management of VITT, since the outcome of this condition may be fatal in half or even more of effected patients with severe disease. Therefore, this narrative review aims to review here the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of VITT and other COVID-19 vaccine-associated thrombocytopenias.

Mehran Bahraini ◽  
Akbar Dorgalaleh

AbstractThe cardinal pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a primary infection of pulmonary tract cells by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, provoking a local inflammatory response, often accompanied by cytokine storm and acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially in patients with severe disease. Systemic propagation of the disease may associate with thrombotic events, including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and thrombotic microangiopathy, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. This narrative review describes current knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, with focus on prothrombotic changes in hemostatic mediators, including plasma levels of clotting factors, natural anticoagulants, components of fibrinolytic system, and platelets. It will also highlight the central role of endothelial cells in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. This narrative review discusses also potential therapeutic strategies for managing thrombotic complications. Awareness by medical experts of contributors to the pathogenesis of thrombotic events in COVID-19 is imperative to develop therapeutics not limited to regular anticoagulants. Instituting cooperation among medical personnel and researchers may lessen this novel virus' impact now, and in the event of recurrence.

Hau C. Kwaan

AbstractSpontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is defined as nontraumatic bleeding into the brain without vascular malformations or presence of tumor. It occurs in about a third of all strokes and has a high mortality and morbidity. Risk factors that determine the outcome are incompletely understood. Known factors include older age, male gender, Asian ethnicity, hypertension, and comorbidity such as inherited or acquired bleeding diathesis and use of antithrombotic drugs. Likewise, the clinical characteristics of the hematoma such as location and volume of the hematoma and other imaging features are also important. Hematoma extension or expansion is a complication with an unfavorable outcome. Recognition of risk factors for hematoma expansion and measures to prevent it, such as blood pressure lowering, will improve the outcome. Enhanced diagnostic methods, especially in imaging techniques developed over the past decade, have not only led to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage but also of the factors that influence hematoma expansion. An improved knowledge is essential to better management, minimizing hematoma expansion and leading to a healthier outcome.

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