anthropogenic activities
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
H. Ul-Hassan ◽  
S. Mahboob ◽  
Z. Masood ◽  
M. N. Riaz ◽  
S. Rizwan ◽  

Abstract This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information’s regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline

2022 ◽  
Miles P. Wilson ◽  
Gillian R. Foulger ◽  
Christopher Saville ◽  
Samuel P. Graham ◽  
Bruce R. Julian

ABSTRACT Relationships between the weather and earthquakes have been suspected for over 2400 yr. However, scientific evidence to support such relationships has grown only since the 1980s. Because faults in Earth’s crust are generally regarded as critically stressed, small changes in stress and pore-fluid pressure brought about by rainfall, snow, and atmospheric pressure and temperature variations have all been proposed to modulate seismicity at local and regional scales. Elastic static stress changes as low as 0.07 kPa and pore-fluid pressure changes as low as 0.5 kPa have been proposed to naturally trigger earthquakes. In the UK, the spatial distributions of onshore earthquakes and rainfall are highly nonuniform and may be related; the wetter and most naturally seismically active areas occur on the west side of the country. We found significant spatial and temporal relationships between rainfall amount and the number of earthquakes for 1980–2012, suggesting larger volumes of rainfall promote earthquake nucleation. Such relationships occur when human-induced seismicity is included or excluded, indicating that meteorological conditions can also modulate seismicity induced by subsurface anthropogenic activities such as coal mining. No significant relationships were observed for monthly time lags, suggesting that the triggering effect of rainfall in the UK is near-instantaneous or occurs within 1 mo. With global climate changing rapidly and extreme weather events occurring more frequently, it is possible that some global regions may also experience changes in the spatial and temporal occurrence of earthquakes in response to changes in meteorologically induced stress perturbations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 79-82

Climate change is a natural phenomenon but in present decades its variability of change mainly due to anthropogenic activities is alarming. Agriculture of Chhattisgarh state is mainly dependant on monsoon rain and its distribution. Considering this fact, the present study  has been tried to analyze the most important climatic variables,              viz., precipitation and temeperature for analyzing their trend in the area. The trends of maximum atmospheric temperature, rainfall and rainy days are analysed statistically for meteorological data of Jagdalpur station of Bastar district, over last three decades stretching between years 1980 to 2014. The long term change in temperature, rainfall and rainy days has been analysed by correlation and linear trend analysis. The annual MMAX temperature has decreased at a rate of -0.465 °C per year during this period at Jagdalpur station and decreasing trend for rainy days during monsoonal season (June to September) is also found and is confirmed by Mann-Kendall trend test. Very weak increasing trend is observed in total month rainfall (TMRF) during season June to September. There are decreasing trends of mean monthly rainfall and south west (June - September) rainfall observed in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. The agricultural planning and utilization of water is dependent on monsoon rainfall and more than 75% of rainfall occurring during the monsoon season is uneven both in time and space. Therefore its analysis is important for crop planning.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Emmanouil Psomiadis

The present study provides information about the evolution of the Sperchios River deltaic area over the last 6500 years. Coastal changes, due to natural phenomena and anthropogenic activities, were analyzed utilizing a variety of geospatial data such as historic records, topographic maps, aerial photos, and satellite images, covering a period from 4500 BC to 2020. A qualitative approach for the period, from 4500 BC to 1852, and a quantitative analysis, from 1852 to the present day, were employed. Considering their scale and overall quality, the data were processed and georeferenced in detail based on the very high-resolution orthophoto datasets of the area. Then, the multitemporal shorelines were delineated in a geographical information system platform. Two different methods were utilized for the estimation of the shoreline changes and trends, namely the coastal change area method and the cross-section analysis, by implementing the digital shoreline analysis system with two statistical approaches, the end point rate and the linear regression rate. Significant river flow and coastline changes were observed with the overall increase in the delta area throughout the study period reaching 135 km2 (mean annual growth of 0.02 km2/yr) and the higher accretion rates to be detected during the periods 1805–1852, 1908–1945 and 1960–1986, especially at the central and north part of the gulf. During the last three decades, the coastline has remained relatively stable with a decreasing tendency, which, along with the expected sea-level rise due to climate change, can infer significant threats for the coastal zone in the near future.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262309
Muhammad Haseeb ◽  
Shahid Iqbal ◽  
Muhammad Bilal Hafeez ◽  
Muhammad Sohail Saddiq ◽  
Noreen Zahra ◽  

The amount of soil contaminated with heavy metal increases due to urbanization, industrialization, and anthropogenic activities. Quinoa is considered a useful candidate in the remediation of such soil. In this pot experiment, the phytoextraction capacity of quinoa lines (A1, A2, A7, and A9) against different nickel (Ni) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg-1) were investigated. Required Ni concentrations were developed in polythene bags filled with sandy loam soil using nickel nitrate salt prior to two months of sowing and kept sealed up to sowing. Results showed that translocation of Ni increased from roots to shoots with an increase in soil Ni concentration in all lines. A2 line accumulated high Ni in leaf compared to the root as depicted by translocation factor 3.09 and 3.21 when grown at soil having 50 and 100 Ni mg kg-1, respectively. While, in the case of root, A7 accumulated high Ni followed by A9, A1, and A2, respectively. There was a 5–7% increased seed yield by 50 mg kg-1 Ni in all except A1 compared to control. However, growth and yield declined with a further increase in Ni level. The maximum reduction in yield was noticed in A9, which was strongly linked with poor physiological performance, e.g., chlorophyll a, b, and phenolic contents. Ni concentrations in the seed of all lines were within the permissible value set (67 ppm) by FAO/WHO. The result of the present study suggests that quinoa is a better accumulator of Ni. This species can provide the scope of decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil. The screened line can be used for future quinoa breeding programs for bioremediation and phytoextraction purpose.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Etienne Rouby ◽  
Laurent Dubroca ◽  
Thomas Cloâtre ◽  
Sebastien Demanèche ◽  
Mathieu Genu ◽  

Marine megafauna plays an important functional role in marine ecosystems as top predators but are threatened by a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Bycatch, the incidental capture of non-targeted species in commercial and recreational fisheries, is of particular concern for small cetacean species, such as dolphins and porpoises. In the North-East Atlantic, common dolphin (Delphinus delphis, Linné 1758) bycatch has been increasing and associated with large numbers of animals stranding during winter on the French Atlantic seashore since at least 2017. However, uncertainties around the true magnitude of common dolphin bycatch and the fisheries involved have led to delays in the implementation of mitigation measures. Current data collection on dolphin bycatch in France is with non-dedicated observers deployed on vessels for the purpose of national fisheries sampling programmes. These data cannot be assumed representative of the whole fisheries' bycatch events. This feature makes it difficult to use classic ratio estimators since they require a truly randomised sample of the fishery by dedicated observers. We applied a newly developed approach, regularised multilevel regression with post-stratification, to estimate total bycatch from unrepresentative samples and total fishing effort. The latter is needed for post-stratification and the former is analysed in a Bayesian framework with multilevel regression to regularise and better predict bycatch risk. We estimated the number of bycaught dolphins for each week and 10 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) divisions from 2004 to 2020 by estimating jointly bycatch risk, haul duration, and the number of hauls per days at sea (DaS). Bycatch risk in pair trawlers flying the French flag was the highest in winter 2017 and 2019 and was associated with the longest haul durations. ICES divisions 8.a and 8.b (shelf part of the Bay of Biscay) were estimated to have the highest common dolphin bycatch. Our results were consistent with independent estimates of common dolphin bycatch from strandings. Our method show cases how non-representative observer data can nevertheless be analysed to estimate fishing duration, bycatch risk and, ultimately, the number of bycaught dolphins. These weekly-estimates improve upon current knowledge of the nature of common dolphin bycatch and can be used to inform management and policy decisions at a finer spatio-temporal scale than has been possible to date. Our results suggest that limiting haul duration, especially in winter, could serve as an effective mitigation strategy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 805-818
Lyudmila Asyakina ◽  
Lyubov Dyshlyuk ◽  
Alexander Prosekov

Introduction. Anthropogenic activities cause large-scale environmental problems. The growing volumes of toxic emissions contribute to soil, water, and air pollution, thus posing a serious threat to all living systems and the global ecosystem. New reclamation methods are a relevant research topic as they help to restore and preserve ecosystems. Study objects and methods. The research covered sixteen years of scientific publications from PubMed of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (USA), Elsevier (Scopus, ScienceDirect), Web of Science, and the national electronic library service Results and discussion. The authors reviewed various scientific publications to define the main technogenic objects that have a toxic effect on biota. Soil is more vulnerable to destructive effects, and mining wastes are responsible for the largest share of technogenically disturbed objects. Pollutants include many compounds, such as heavy metals, hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, acids, etc. Reclamation technologies reduce the man-induced impact on the environment, e.g. pollutants can be completely or partially destroyed, processed into non-toxic products, completely removed, stabilized into less toxic forms, etc. This review provides information on the main methods of reclamation of disturbed soils and substantiates the prospect of developing integrated reclamation technologies. Conclusion. The present review featured the main pollutants of anthropogenic origin and the traditional soil reclamation methods. The most prospective new technologies of soil reclamation appeared to be a combination of such biological methods as phytoremediation, bioaugmentation, and biostimulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 810
Tan Yigitcanlar ◽  
Massimo Regona ◽  
Nayomi Kankanamge ◽  
Rashid Mehmood ◽  
Justin D’Costa ◽  

Natural hazard-related disasters are disruptive events with significant impact on people, communities, buildings, infrastructure, animals, agriculture, and environmental assets. The exponentially increasing anthropogenic activities on the planet have aggregated the climate change and consequently increased the frequency and severity of these natural hazard-related disasters, and consequential damages in cities. The digital technological advancements, such as monitoring systems based on fusion of sensors and machine learning, in early detection, warning and disaster response systems are being implemented as part of the disaster management practice in many countries and presented useful results. Along with these promising technologies, crowdsourced social media disaster big data analytics has also started to be utilized. This study aims to form an understanding of how social media analytics can be utilized to assist government authorities in estimating the damages linked to natural hazard-related disaster impacts on urban centers in the age of climate change. To this end, this study analyzes crowdsourced disaster big data from Twitter users in the testbed case study of Australian states and territories. The methodological approach of this study employs the social media analytics method and conducts sentiment and content analyses of location-based Twitter messages (n = 131,673) from Australia. The study informs authorities on an innovative way to analyze the geographic distribution, occurrence frequency of various disasters and their damages based on the geo-tweets analysis.

2022 ◽  
Blair P Bentley ◽  
Tomás Carrasco-Valenzuela ◽  
Elisa K. S. Ramos ◽  
Harvinder Pawar ◽  
Larissa Souza Arantes ◽  

Marine turtles represent an ancient lineage of marine vertebrates that evolved from terrestrial ancestors over 100 MYA, yet the genomic basis of the unique physiological and ecological traits enabling these species to thrive in diverse marine habitats remain largely unknown. Additionally, many populations have declined drastically due to anthropogenic activities over the past two centuries, and their recovery is a high global conservation priority. We generated and analyzed high-quality reference genomes for green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles, representing the two extant marine turtle families (MRCA ~60 MYA). Generally, these genomes are highly syntenic and homologous. Non-collinearity was associated with higher copy numbers of immune, zinc-finger, or olfactory receptor (OR) genes in green turtles. Gene family analyses suggested that ORs related to waterborne odorants have expanded in green turtles and contracted in leatherbacks, which may underlie immunological and sensory adaptations assisting navigation and occupancy of neritic versus pelagic environments, and diet specialization. Microchromosomes showed reduced collinearity, and greater gene content, heterozygosity, and genetic distances between species, supporting their critical role in vertebrate evolutionary adaptation. Finally, demographic history and diversity analyses showed stark contrasts between species, indicating that leatherback turtles have had a low yet stable effective population size, extremely low diversity when compared to other reptiles, and a higher proportion of deleterious variants, reinforcing concern over the persistence of this species under future climate scenarios. These highly contiguous genomes provide invaluable resources for advancing our understanding of evolution and conservation best practices in an imperiled vertebrate lineage.

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