potable water
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2022 ◽  
Vol 304 ◽  
pp. 114295
G.L. Chathurika L. Bandara ◽  
Isuru S.A. Abeysiriwardana-Arachchige ◽  
Xuesong Xu ◽  
Lu Lin ◽  
Wenbin Jiang ◽  

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 211
Lei Hou ◽  
Zhongyuan Zhou ◽  
Ruyan Wang ◽  
Jianxin Li ◽  
Fei Dong ◽  

In recent years, freshwater resource contamination by non-point source pollution has become particularly prominent in China. To control non-point source (NPS) pollution, it is important to estimate NPS pollution exports, identify sources of pollution, and analyze the pollution characteristics. As such, in this study, we established the modified export coefficient model based on rainfall and terrain to investigate the pollution sources and characteristics of non-point source total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) throughout the Huangqian Reservoir watershed—which serves as an important potable water source for the main tributary of the lower Yellow River. The results showed that: (1) In 2018, the non-point source total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads in the Huangqian Reservoir basin were 707.09 t and 114.42 t, respectively. The contribution ratios to TN export were, from high to low, rural life (33.58%), farmland (32.68%), other land use types (20.08%), and livestock and poultry breeding (13.67%). The contribution ratios to TP export were, from high to low, rural life (61.19%), livestock and poultry breeding (21.65%), farmland (12.79%), and other land use types (4.38%). The non-point source pollution primarily originated from the rural life of the water source protection zone. (2) Non-point source TN and TP pollution loads and load intensities showed significantly different spatial distribution patterns throughout the water source protection area. Specifically, their load intensities and loads were the largest in the second-class protected zone, which is the key source area of non-point source pollution. (3) When considering whether to invest in agricultural land fertilizer control or rural domestic sewage, waste, and livestock manure pollution control, the latter is demonstrably more effective. Thus, in addition to putting low-grade control on agricultural fertilizer loss, to rapidly and effectively improve potable water quality, non-point source pollution should, to a larger extent, also be controlled through measures such as establishing household biogas digesters, introducing village sewage treatment plants, and improving the recovery rate of rural domestic garbage. The research results discussed herein provide a theoretical basis for formulating a reasonable and effective protection plan for the Huangqian Reservoir water source and can potentially be used to do the same for other similar freshwater resources.

Beverages ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Lei Cong ◽  
Phil Bremer ◽  
Eddy Fang ◽  
Linling Li ◽  
Miranda Mirosa

Biocides, in the form of sanitisers and disinfectants, are used extensively to reduce the risk of microbial contamination to beverage products and to ensure the safety of potable water used in processing. To better understand consumers’ perceptions of biocide use and to explore messaging strategies regarding their importance to ensure product safety, eight focus groups were conducted in New Zealand (n = 4) and China (n = 4). Consumers generally did not understand why or how biocides were used. In both countries, their most trustworthy source of information on biocide use was government sources. New Zealand and Chinese participants did not like the word “biocide” mentioned on labels due to its perceived negative connotations. Interestingly, acceptance for the word was higher if the phrase “environmentally friendly” was simultaneously communicated. The findings from this study have provided the beverage industry with guidance on how best to initiate conversations with consumers on the use of biocides.

2022 ◽  
pp. 368-387
Trust Nhubu ◽  
Edison Muzenda ◽  
Mohamed Belaid

The management of water resources and waste is amongst the major challenges facing the majority of urban environments within developing nations due to the rapid population growth and urbanisation as well as improved lifestyles. The Greater Harare Metropolitan Province is not spared by these management challenges. This chapter proposes a number of scenarios that could be implemented in the short to medium terms to address these challenges within the GHMP from a water-waste nexus approach. The water-waste nexus approach is anticipated to significantly reduce the human health impacts and environmental impacts, specifically the water resources pollution which is responsible for the increase in cost of potable water production subsequently resulting in intermittent potable water supply in the GHMP. The study regards the recovery of energy from the waste generated in the GHMP as an integral component of the approach with the energy recovered used for water, wastewater, and waste treatment.

Chao Xu ◽  
Haibo Li

Interfacial solar steam generation (ISSG) is considered to be a highly efficient and environmental-friendly desalination technique for producing potable water. Herein, we demonstrate the high-performance SSG enabled by the porous...

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