Food Processing
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2021 ◽  
pp. 12-19
Sarah Hwa In Lee ◽  
Marina Resende Pimenta Portinari ◽  
Carlos Humberto Corassin ◽  
Carlos Augusto Fernandes Oliveira

The ability of some pathogenic bacterial species to form biofilms on surfaces of equipment and utensils is of great concern to the food industry since they represent a continuous source of contamination in food processing environments. In this review, the factors involved in the formation of microbial biofilms are highlighted, along with a discussion on the preventive disinfection procedures recommended to avoid the attachment of microbial cells on surfaces of equipment and utensils in food processing areas. Relevant articles published in the last 10 years (2012-present) were selected in PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Methods for assessing the adhesion and biofilm formation ability of strains isolated from surfaces in the food industry environment are also presented.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2530
Alvaro De Obeso Fernandez Del Valle ◽  
Christian Quintus Scheckhuber

Algae and fungi share a rich history in the fields of basic and applied natural science. In biotechnology, in particular, algae and fungi are of paramount importance, due to the production and development of valuable compounds, such as pharmaceuticals, enzymes, and biofuels. They are also used in waste fermentation, biocontrol of pathogens, and food processing and improvement, among other fields. Although a substantial number of different microorganisms are utilized for these purposes, there lies tremendous potential in uncharacterized microbial species. For this reason, biodiversity hotspots offer a wealth of potential in the discovery of new products and processing strategies based on these microorganisms. This review presents an overview of the use of algae and fungi in pre-Hispanic times/modern-day Mexico for the benefits of mankind. One of our objectives is to raise awareness about the potential of developing research projects for identification and biotechnological utilization of algae and fungi in a megadiverse country, such as Mexico.

Coatings ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1419
Alfredo Rondinella ◽  
Francesco Andreatta ◽  
Daniele Turrin ◽  
Lorenzo Fedrizzi

The application of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings to metal surfaces is a well-known procedure carried out to avoid fouling phenomena on food-processing surfaces. Fluorine-based polymers are generally chemically and thermally stable, thus allowing them to be the preferred choice when designing anti-stick coatings in the food service industry. Their lifespan, however, depends on the environmental conditions. It is well known that thermal ageing can affect the properties of PTFE polymers and reduce their mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties causing failures and contaminating food. The main goal of the study is to identify the different failure mechanisms occurring in PTFE-based coatings, using both SEM/EDXS and ATR FT-IR data to reveal the starting point of degradation phenomena in food processing applications. The results from this research reveal that the preferential points for failures are mainly the polymer/substrate interfaces, the polymer/filler interfaces, or the polymer matrix itself.

2021 ◽  
pp. 089011712110458
Qi Zhang ◽  
Junzhou Zhang ◽  
Kayoung Park ◽  
Chuanyi Tang ◽  
Patrick W. McLaughlin ◽  

Purpose This study aims to examine the relationship between cash value benefit (CVB) redemption outcomes in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) across food processing types and socio-demographics. Design Cross-sectional and panel analyses. Setting Virginia. Subjects 98,067 Virginia WIC households. Measures CVB redemption rate. Results The predominant share of CVB redemption was for fresh produce (77.3%). Non-Hispanic whites and blacks redeemed a smaller share of fresh produce than Hispanic participants ( P < .001). Non-Hispanic black WIC households have a significantly lower CVB redemption rate than non-Hispanic white WIC households (β = −.008, P < .001). Households with a child participant tend to have a higher redemption rate (β = .01, P < .001). The redemption rates of fruits and of vegetables were positively correlated with household size. Conclusions Minority status and household size were significantly related to CVB redemptions among Virginia WIC participants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yi-Chen Huang ◽  
Pei-Ru Huang ◽  
Yuan-Ting C. Lo ◽  
Chien-Wen Sun ◽  
Wen-Harn Pan ◽  

Background: Phthalates esters are widely used commercially and can leach from a food container or food packaging. Few studies have been conducted in Asia regarding food processed to varying levels and human phthalate exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the association between unprocessed and ultra-processed food intake and urinary phthalate metabolite levels in the Taiwanese adult population.Methods: A total of 516 participant data were extracted from the cross-sectional 1993–1996 and 2005–2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan of those aged over 18 years, where urinary measures and one 24-h dietary recall were collected. Urinary concentrations of dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites including monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were measured in spot urine samples. The NOVA food processing classification system was applied to divide all consumed foods into four mutually exclusive groups including unprocessed or minimally processed, processed culinary ingredients, processed and ultra-processed food. Generalized linear models were employed to examine the associations between the percentage quartiles (Qs) of unprocessed and ultra-processed foods in the total weight of food and the urinary phthalate metabolites.Results: Compared with participants in the lowest quartiles (Q1) of ultra-processed food intake, highest ultra-processed food intake (Q4) had 65.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.83, 162) higher urinary concentrations of MEP after adjusted for covariates. In contrast, the higher unprocessed food consumption was inversely associated with urinary concentrations of MEP and MBP (P for trend = 0.03). When compared to the lowest unprocessed food consumers (Q1), higher consumers (Q4) presented 38.6% (95% CI: −61.3, −2.59) lower MEP concentrations and 23.1% (95% CI: −38.5, −3.71) lower MBP concentrations.Conclusion: Ultra-processed food consumption was associated with increased concentrations of urinary MEP. Conversely, consuming unprocessed food was associated with lower concentrations of MEP and MBP in the Asian Taiwanese adult population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Vincent Linderhof ◽  
Thijs de Lange ◽  
Stijn Reinhard

Water is a factor input for many food system activities such as agriculture, food processing and consumption. However, food system activities also affect water resources. Moreover, the shift in focus of food security in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) from producing enough staple foods toward healthy diets stimulates local production of fresh food such as fruit, vegetables and fish even in water scarce regions. To secure local production, polluted water is used for food production, processing and consumption, which might jeopardize human health. However, scientific evidence is still scattered and fragmented. The aim of this study is to systematically investigate the empirical tested impacts of water quality on the food system activities and vice versa. Using a comprehensive framework, we sketch the inter-relationships between water quality and food systems based on a literature study. Food system activities included food production (crop production, livestock and aquaculture), food processing, and food consumption. Multiple contaminants were incorporated such as nitrogen, phosphorus, pesticides, pathogens, cyanotoxins, and heavy metals. Moreover, we considered different water sources such as groundwater, surface water, wastewater and coastal water. We found that food system activities contaminate water in several ways, and these differ between food system activity and type of food produced. The impact of water quality on the food system depends on the food produced, the type of contaminant and techniques of food preparation. In addition, food is contaminated in multiple ways along the food system. Irrigation with polluted water may sound familiar, but polluted water is sometimes also used in food processing (cleaning of equipment or food products), and in food preparation (at home or by street vendors). Hygiene in food consumption is crucial to prevent fecal-oral transmission. However, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) received little attention in relation to food consumption. If local production of fresh food is encouraged to improve food security, all aspects of water quality should be analyzed to avoid undesirable consequences.

Esben Eller ◽  
Per Stahl Skov ◽  
Katrine Baumann ◽  
Christiane Hilger ◽  
Markus Ollert ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (22) ◽  
pp. 10652
Zhenzhen Ning ◽  
Bei Xue ◽  
Huhu Wang

Microbial adhesion constitutes the transition of microorganisms from a planktonic mode to a static one. It promotes the formation of biofilm which is responsible for spoilage, foodborne diseases, and corrosion in the food processing industry. In this study, the adhesive potential of fourteen meat-borne bacterial isolates belonging to seven different genera was investigated. All strains were found able to colonize polystyrene surfaces with different levels of firmness. Significant variations were determined in assays of bacterial hydrophobicity and motility. Among the 14 strains, Pseudomonas fragi, Aeromonas salmonicida II, Serratia liquefaciens, Citrobacter braakii, Pseudomonas putida, and Aeromonas veronii had a strong hydrophobic force, while the isolates of Lactobacillus genus showed the most hydrophilic property. In terms of motility, Citrobacter braakii and Escherichia coli exhibited exceptional swarming and swimming abilities, whilst conservatively weak performances were observed in the Lactobacillus strains. Furthermore, the majority of the isolates were predominantly electron donors and weak electron acceptors. Overall, a high level of correlation was observed between biofilm-forming ability with cell surface hydrophobicity and Lewis acid–base properties, whereas the contribution of motility in bacterial adhesion could not be confirmed. Research on the adhesive performance of foodborne bacteria is potentially conducive to developing novel control strategies, such as food processing equipment with specific surfaces, not facilitating attachment.

F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 810
Sunkanmi Oluwaleye ◽  
Victoria Oguntosin ◽  
Francis Idachaba

Background: Acceptable food processing techniques require the removal of water contents from the crop or food sample without destroying the nutritional qualities of the food sample. This poses a strict requirement on the dehydrator or oven that will be used in the dehydrating techniques to have the ability to control both temperature and humidity of its drying chamber. Methods: This work centres on how an autonomous multi-farm produce dehydrator that can also serve as an oven can be designed with a raspberry pi and a low-cost programmable logic controller (PLC). The dehydrator gives the users the flexibility to control both the drying chamber’s temperature and humidity from its web interface via a mobile device or the dehydrator’s HMI. Heat energy from the Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) is used so that the dehydrator can be readily available for commercial or industrial use.  The small electricity required to power the electronics devices is obtained from the hybrid power solution with an electric energy source from either the mains electricity supply or solar.. The design was tested by creating an operation profile from the proposed web application for the dehydrator. The operation trend was analysed from the web application’s Trendlines page. Results: The report showed that both the temperature and humidity of the dehydrator could be controlled, and access to historical operation data will give insight to the user on how to create a better operation profile. Conclusion: The setup described in this work, when implemented was able to produce a dehydrator/oven whose temperature and humidity can be perfectly controlled and its generated heat is evenly distributed in its drying chamber to ensure efficient and effective drying techniques use in crop preservation and food processing.

Erenay Eren ◽  
Necattin Cihat Icyer ◽  
Nevruz Berna Tatlisu ◽  
Mahmut Kilicli ◽  
Gizem Hulaga Kaderoglu ◽  

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