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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 115
. Darwis ◽  
Bama Andika Putra

This article addresses how systemic stimuli and domestic constraints, specifically on the perception of foreign policy executives, influence Indonesia’s leadership decline in ASEAN under Joko Widodo’s first presidential term. Through the lens of neoclassical realism, it is concluded that Indonesia’s leadership decline in ASEAN is attributed to the changing geopolitical landscape of Asia, with the assertive rise of China and the need to find other models of grand strategies in facing the regional hegemon. Furthermore, there is a unified perception of the irrelevance of maintaining a leadership role in ASEAN, and how the foreign policy executives of the Indonesian President and the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs have concluded to this approach. Implementation of this research is the contribution to the foreign policy framework in facing certain systemic stimuli in the region of Asia, and to understand the role of a unified perspective among foreign policy executives to the actual output of foreign policy. This article contributes to the discourses of; (1) neoclassical realism, specifically on the role of systemic stimuli and elite perceptions as intervening variables in understanding alterations in foreign policy behavior, and (2) empirical analysis of Indonesia’s leadership role in ASEAN during the presidency of Joko Widodo.   Received: 16 August 2021 / Accepted: 25 October 2021 / Published: 3 January 2022

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (3) ◽  
pp. 253-274
Aleksandar Raković

The paper shows how the first Yugoslav rock opera Gubec-beg was created, how its spectacular stage production made its way into the repertoire of Zagrebʼs Komedija Theatre and the Vatroslav Lisinski Concert Hall in Zagreb, how important it was for Yugoslav culture at home and cultural diplomacy abroad and for public opinion regarding this performance. The paper is written on the basis of documents from the Archives of Yugoslavia, the Diplomatic Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Serbia, the domestic press and periodicals (entertainment, music, daily, youth, political, musicological, theatre), and academic and scholarly literature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 87-94

The short-term ‘reign’ of the United States as leader of the world, policeman of the world, is being seriously challenged not only by pundits all over the world but by even political scientists and analysts in the United States itself. In fact, many are seriously opining that the United States is in decline—that it has lost its sense of direction, has taken itself too seriously, and has led the world for its own profit and well-being while disregarding the realities of other nations and peoples. The article attempts to trace the reasons for this sudden reversal of popularity of the DisUnited States of America.

Batbayar Tsedendamba

The article explores the aspects of the interaction between the USSR and the USA on the Mongolian question within the UN during first 15 years of the Cold war. The author dwells such problems as Mongolia’s contribution to the war against Japanese militarism; the question of the involvement of Ulaanbaatar to the Korean war in 1950-1953; the arguments between Moscow and Washington concerning the package admittance of new members; the reason of the veto power exercised by the Chiang Kai-shek regime; ideological conflicts between two opposing blocs in the United Nations. The first application for Mongolia’s admission to the UN was submitted to Secretary-General Trygve Lie in a letter dated June 21, 1946, signed by Kh. Choibalsan, Prime-Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the MPR. The solution of this issue, however, dragged on until 1961. During this period, the application for admission of the MPR was renewed four times - in 1948, 1955, 1956 and 1957. The Mongolian statement was considered at least 13 times in various meetings of the UN Security Council.

Alexander V. Tsyuryumov ◽  

The article aims to introduce a new source on the Kalmyk Khanate’s history, namely, “Vypiska o derbetevykh vladel’tsakh i o ikh ulusakh sochinennaia” (An extract about Derbet owners and their ulus, composed). The document was discovered in the National Archive of the Republic of Kalmykia, repository 36, “Sostoiashchii pri kalmytskikh delakh pri Astrakhanskom gubernatore (To Kalmyk affairs under the Astrakhan governor). Results. The record made on 70 sheets of paper, originated from the Collegium of Foreign Affairs; it was sent along with the imperial decree for the governor to familiarize himself with the policy pursued in relation to the ulus. The source contains significant data that sheds additional light not only on the history of the Derbet ulus but also on the Kalmyk Khanate overall. It describes the history of the ulus since the early eighteenth century, with a focus on the events between the 1740s and mid-1750s. The document has to do with the events that took place on the Don, where the Derbet ulus used to roam; special attention is given to the Derbet owners’ attitudes to the strife that took place in the first half of the century. Conclusions. “Vypiska o derbetevykh vladel’tsakh i o ikh ulusakh sochinennaia” is one of the detailed records describing the history of the Derbet ulus in the eighteenth century based on the government’s documents of the first half of the century. That is why there is a detailed description of the events related to the ulus’s move to the Don, indicating the ulus owners’ attitudes to the strife that took place at the time in the Khanate. There is every reason to believe that the document was written by Vasily Bakunin, the Collegium member who was most knowledgeable about the affairs of the Kalmyk Khanate.

2021 ◽  
pp. 002190962110638
Salman Ata ◽  
Babar Shahbaz ◽  
Muhammad Arif Watto ◽  
Nisar Hussain

Each year, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA), Pakistan issues a special 10-day hunting permit to royal family members of Gulf countries for seasonal hunting of Asian Houbara bustard ( Chlamydotis macqueen). This paper attempts to systematically present the understandings on seasonal land grabbing and its political economy in Pakistan. The role of local elites and government institutions and the response of local people, as well as their resistance, is discussed in detail.

Mihai Christopher Marian Radovici

The EU seeks to affirm itself as a major actor within the realm of international relations, trying to promote key democratic values throughout its network of diplomatic missions. Thus, EU’s foreign and internal policies are constructed as to commonly represent member states in global issues as a well-defined political entity of its own. It is through these lenses that we can observe the ways in which EU’s efforts, to remain a major global actor, are diminished because the entity lacks the force (self-reliant army) through which it could efficiently represent its military interests. The only military might, at EU’s disposal, being member state’s own troops, which can be deployed in emergency-related situations through the common security policy. As such, there are some foreign and defence ministers from the community block which are demanding, after the Afghanistan chaotic developments, an increased military independence for both the EU and its intervention forces. On a similar tone, Josep Borrell Fontelles, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, believes that it is the right time for EU to form its own military corps. Furthermore, overseeing the emerging security contexts, to which NATO responded by engaging into an ample transformation and adaptation process, we can underline some key developments, which showcase the need to revaluate EU’s military efforts, especially in terms of using its capabilities and capacities as a primordial source of credibility. As citizens’ security remains one of Brussels’ main objectives, and one of the primordial European institutions’ responsibilities, they have put forward and accepted, almost two decades ago, the European Security Strategy, which has established, for the first time, tangible goals, and objectives when it comes to protecting EU’s interests in terms of security and defence. It is this document which transforms the current approach across the continent, and its analysis can prove a starting ground for punctual optimizations to take place, to gain resilience in the face of alternative or emerging threats and risks.

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