Labor Market
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2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Maria Amparo Cruz Saco ◽  
Mirian Gil ◽  
Cynthia Campos

Using annual household surveys from 2004 to 2019, we examine the existence of a gender labor income gap among older persons in Peru. Two labor income models are estimated: Model 1 uses a basic set of demographic, socioeconomic, and personal characteristics as regressors (also called endowments); Model 2 uses the basic set plus additional personal characteristics. The Misner‐type relationship holds with positive returns for education and experience, and the anticipated association to the endowments. The Oaxaca‐Blinder decomposition yields an explained labor income gender gap of 44.4% (Model 1) and 51.5% (Model 2), i.e., controlling for endowments, approximately one half of the labor income difference remains unexplained and can be attributed to discrimination and labor segregation. In light of these results, we estimate Model 3 with two additional variables (head of household and beneficiary of intergenerational private transfer) which attempt to capture gendered stereotypes. With these two variables which provide information on gender discrimination the explained labor income gap for Model 3 is 71.1%—an increase of 19.6%. The unexplained component of the difference in labor income amounts to 28.8% that we attribute to unobserved variables that operate as post‐labor market elements in patriarchal societies. Results show that gender inequity during a woman’s life‐span manifests acutely among older women, which raises important implications for policy interventions.

Sakhipjamal Djalgasovna Djoldasova ◽  

Almost all countries of the world are involved in the migration process, and Uzbekistan is no exception. While our country is involved in the international migration process, including labor migration, one of the main factors is the large number of young workers and the underdeveloped domestic labor market. Therefore, our citizens are working abroad in the world labor market.

2021 ◽  
pp. 101269022110640
Christopher M. McLeod ◽  
Hanhan Xue ◽  
Joshua I. Newman

Esports is often described as a growing industry ripe with financial opportunities for young professional, competitive gamers. However, these claims rarely consider how income is distributed amongst players. This study uses prize earnings data from 2005 to 2019 to examine labor market inequality and related social inequalities and social stratifications. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients show that inequality has increased in the labor market overall and the labor markets for the five top games based on total prizes awarded ( Dota 2, Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, Fortnite, League of Legends, StarCraft II). Competitors can expect to earn more today than in 2005, but median incomes have shown sporadic and inconsistent growth compared with top incomes. Moreover, most competitors earn less than the US poverty threshold. Comparing the earnings of the top female players to the whole labor market shows that gender inequalities exist in median incomes and the likelihood of earning more than the poverty threshold. The esports labor market is an engine of inequality that provides opportunities for a few (primarily male) competitors while building a growing class of lowly paid players who support the interests of game designers and event organizers.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Priyaranjan Jha ◽  
Rana Hasan

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand labor market regulations and their consequences for the allocation of resources. Design/methodology/approach This paper constructs a theoretical model to study labor market regulations in developing countries and how it affects the allocation of resources between the less productive informal activities and more productive formal activities. It also provides empirical support for some theoretical results using cross-country data. Findings When workers are risk-averse and the market for insurance against labor income risk is missing, regulations that provide insurance to workers (such as severance payments) reduce misallocation. However, regulations that simply create barriers to the dismissal of workers increase misallocation and end up reducing the welfare of workers. This study also provides some empirical evidence broadly consistent with the theoretical results using cross-country data. While dismissal regulations increase the share of informal employment, severance payments to workers do not. Research limitations/implications The empirical exercise is constrained by the lack of availability of good data on the informal sector. Originality/value The analysis of the alternative labor market regulations analyzed in this paper in the presence of risk-averse workers is an original contribution to the literature.

Murugan Subramaniam ◽  
Muhammad Khair Noordin ◽  
Hanzalah Mohamed Nor

The mismatch of skills is one of the main reasons for unemployment. The analysis revealed employers’ agreement of graduate engineers’ performance in non-technical skills which is deemed to not meet their expectations. Therefore, to align with the needs of employers; universities are working hard to close the gap and begin to focus to produce work-ready engineers whom are good asset for the industry and those who are able to work with minimal supervision independently. The various jobs and non-technical skills triggered a vast change to the labor market with a prime shift in the skills required to thrive in the new environment anticipated but also to business structures that was requested from Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR4.0). The nine skills would be Leadership, Flexibility and Adaptability, and Language literacy, Critical thinking and solving problems, Holistic, Entrepreneurial and Balance, Resilience, Values and Ethics, Compassion and Mindfulness, Creativity and Innovation. These skills or talents that recognize employees as competent are called as future-proof non-technical skills. The purpose of this paper is to upgrade the nine future-proof non-technical skills that are set especially for the engineering students through industrial training, and also to demonstrate the capability of Eight-Discipline-Problem based learning (8D-PBL); and things need to be emphasized in industrial training assessment method to ensure the objective of the industrial training is achieved.

Samuel Muehlemann ◽  
Stefan Wolter

The economic reasons why firms engage in apprenticeship training are twofold. First, apprenticeship training is a potentially cost-effective strategy for filling a firm’s future vacancies, particularly if skilled labor on the external labor market is scarce. Second, apprentices can be cost-effective substitutes for other types of labor in the current production process. As current and expected business and labor market conditions determine a firm’s expected work volume and thus its future demand for skilled labor, they are potentially important drivers of a firm’s training decisions. Empirical studies have found that the business cycle affects apprenticeship markets. However, while the economic magnitude of these effects is moderate on average, there is substantial heterogeneity across countries, even among those that at first sight seem very similar in terms of their apprenticeship systems. Moreover, identification of business cycle effects is a difficult task. First, statistics on apprenticeship markets are often less developed than labor market statistics, making empirical analyses of demand and supply impossible in many cases. In particular, data about unfilled apprenticeship vacancies and unsuccessful applicants are paramount for assessing potential market failures and analyzing the extent to which business cycle fluctuations may amplify imbalances in apprenticeship markets. Second, the intensity of business cycle effects on apprenticeship markets is not completely exogenous, as governments typically undertake a variety of measures, which differ across countries and may change over time, to reduce the adverse effects of economic downturns on apprenticeship markets. During the economic crisis related to the COVID-19 global pandemic, many countries took unprecedented actions to support their economies in general and reacted swiftly to introduce measures such as the provision of financial subsidies for training firms or the establishment of apprenticeship task forces. As statistics on apprenticeship markets improve over time, such heterogeneity in policy measures should be exploited to improve our understanding of the business cycle and its relationship with apprenticeships.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 32-38
E. E. Orlova

The article is devoted to the problems of harmonization of legal regulation in the field of employment of the population of the CIS member states in the context of the Eurasian perspective. The creation of a single legal space of the CIS member states contributes to the effective functioning of the common labor market, the structure of which will be determined by the harmonized, and in many parts unified national legislation of the CIS member states. The problem of harmonization of legal regulation in the field of employment of the population is considered in the context of solving a broader task: creating a single legal space of the common labor market of the CIS member states. The article analyzes the principles, levels, mechanism, stages of harmonization of legal regulation in the field of employment of the population of the CIS member states in the context of the Eurasian perspective.

Timothy E. Zimmer ◽  
Allison Snyder ◽  
Amanda Miller ◽  
Timothy F. Slaper

The study examines wage differentials of individuals experiencing unemployment episodes using a multivariate analysis of wage and unemployment records. The focus is the wage effect of small distance geographic mobility (micro-mobility) during job seeking. The results identify limitations on geographic micro-mobility as a source of wage disparity in the re-employment market. The study isolates persistent gender differences in geographic mobility rates and hypothesizes this as a potential source of gender-wage disparity in both the re-employment and greater labor market. The data and methods are unique. The dataset is Indiana administrative wage records over a ten-year period for individuals that experience unemployment episodes. The study assesses unemployment as an exogenous shock on wages to determine underlying influences in the labor market. The novel approach is unconstrained by limitations associated with aggregated or proxy data.

SERIEs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Samuel Bentolila ◽  
Florentino Felgueroso ◽  
Marcel Jansen ◽  
Juan F. Jimeno

AbstractYoung workers in Spain face the unprecedented impact of the Great Recession and the COVID-19 crisis in short sequence. Moreover, they have also experienced a deterioration in their employment and earnings over the last three decades. In this paper, we document this evolution and adopt a longitudinal approach to show that employment and earnings losses suffered by young workers during recessions are not made up in the subsequent expansions. We also estimate the size of the scarring effects of entering the job market in a recession for college-educated workers during their first decade in the labor market. Our empirical estimates indicate that while there is some evidence of scarring effects, the driving force is a trend worsening of youth labor market outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (2) ◽  
pp. 21-27
Marina V. Goryainova ◽  
Lyudmila A. Karasaeva ◽  
Aminat A. Nurova ◽  
Olga N. Petrova ◽  
Elena M. Ugleva ◽  

BACKGROUND: In the system of medical and social expertise and rehabilitation of disabled people, the solution of issues of employment, socialization, improvement of the level and quality of their life becomes obviously relevant. AIMS: To study and analyze the needs of disabled people in vocational rehabilitation, including employment and the creation of special jobs, in a comparative aspect - in St. Petersburg and the Russian Federation. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The materials of the study were data from Rosstat of Russia, official state statistical reporting: Forms 7-sobes "Information on medical and social expertise of persons aged 18 and older" for 20152019. RESULTS: The article analyzes the indicators of primary disability and the needs of disabled people in vocational rehabilitation activities based on the study of the individual rehabilitation or habilitation program (IPRA) for disabled people in Saint Petersburg and the Russian Federation in dynamics over five years (20152019). An analysis of the needs for vocational rehabilitation measures, taking into account its structure in IPRA (vocational guidance and employment) and the disability group, was carried out. Since the greatest difficulties arise in the selection and organization of jobs for people with disabilities of groups I and II, the needs of people with disabilities in creating a special workplace have been studied. The necessity of solving organizational, methodological, and financial issues when creating special jobs for the disabled is emphasized. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the state program "Accessible environment" and its subprograms aimed at creating models of employment of disabled people in the regions of the Russian Federation requires taking into account the territorial characteristics of the prevalence of primary disability and the specifics of the regional labor market in the employment of disabled people.

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