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2022 ◽  
pp. 000276422110660
Heba Gowayed ◽  
Ashley Mears ◽  
Nicholas Occhiuto

How, in the wake of the coronavirus crisis, do workers respond to rapid changes in the labor market? This paper mobilizes existing literature on occupational mobility and job loss to develop a theory of situational human capital in which some workers are better positioned to weather occupational transitions than others depending on the alignment between their skill sets, opportunities, and particular contexts. Previous literature looks at this in the case of “pausing,” when workers, such as women, take time off from work. Relatively less explored but equally consequential are transitions like “pivoting,” in which workers maneuver within their occupations to adjust their practices or platforms in order to keep working, and “shifting,” in which workers change their occupations altogether. Since most government unemployment benefits focus almost exclusively on workers’ pauses, they neglect to support workers as they pivot and shift during periods of labor market instability and disruption. This paper concludes by offering some policy recommendations to fill this gap.

Zheng Liu ◽  
Yongjiang Shi ◽  
Bo Yang

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge and disruptive technological changes in the healthcare sector, transforming the way businesses and societies function. To respond to the global health crisis, there have been numerous innovation projects in the healthcare sector, including the fast design and manufacturing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and medical devices, and testing, treatment, and vaccine technologies. Many of these innovative activities happen beyond organizational boundaries with collaboration and open innovation. In this paper, we review the current literature on open innovation strategy during the pandemic and adopt the co-evolution view of business ecosystems to address the context of change. Based on a detailed exploration of the COVID-19-related technologies in the UK and global healthcare sectors, we identify the key emerging themes of open innovation in crisis. Further discussions are conducted in relation to each theme. Our results and analysis can help provide policy recommendations for the healthcare sector, businesses, and society to recover from the crisis.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
R.M. Qudsi Fauzi ◽  
Meri Indri Hapsari ◽  
Sri Herianingrum ◽  
Sunan Fanani ◽  
Tuti Kurnia

Purpose This paper aims to identify the factors that hinder the successful empowerment of waqf land in Indonesia empirically by applying the analytic networking process (ANP). Design/methodology/approach In this study, after the waqf land problem criteria were introduced, an ANP model was developed and applied to identify the main problem, solution and strategy as a framework to guide stakeholders to produce policy recommendations appropriately and optimally. Findings The results showed that the main priority of the problem is the nadzir aspect. Furthermore, each criterion’s problems are a low public trust, unprofessional nadzir (waqf manager), a huge number of idle waqf lands, the absence of waqf certificates and non-economic waqf lands utilisation. Meanwhile, the main priorities for each aspect of the solution are socialisation and education to the community, nadzir certification, utilisation of information technology for the administration of waqf land governance, waqf land certification and innovation of waqf land development projects. Then, the long-term strategic priority is optimising the community’s role in the empowerment of waqf land. Research limitations/implications The development of the ANP model would give the institutions a modest, flexible and convenient approach to evaluate the barriers present in waqf land. However, ANP requires greater effort because it is a highly complex methodology that compels a study to use more numerical calculations in assessing composite priorities. Originality/value Not many studies on waqf land issues in Indonesia have been discussed empirically. Most of these studies are in the form of descriptive studies. This study introduces the ANP approach to illustrate the main problems of waqf land empowerment in Indonesia. ANP is a new approach to the decision-making process through a process that produces a general framework for treating decisions without making assumptions regarding independence between elements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  
Fang-rong Ren ◽  
Ying-ying Shi ◽  
Hang-sheng Chen ◽  
Ze Tian

The rise of energy consumption has also increased emissions of the “three wastes” (wastewater, waste gas, and industrial solid waste), and environmental emergencies caused by pollutants, natural disasters, and production safety accidents have aroused social concerns. As few scholars have combined treatment efficiency of the three wastes with environmental emergencies to explore their relationships, this research thus uses a two-stage undesirable Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method to explore the situations of 4 regions and 30 provinces in China from 2013 to 2017 based on such interactive perspectives. The study finds that the overall regional environmental efficiency in China is generally low, and in terms of regional differences, the eastern and northeastern regions are better than the central and western regions. The efficiency values of the three wastes in China have also fluctuated greatly from 0.7 down to 0.2 in recent years. The efficiency of environmental emergencies in China is greatly impacted by the efficiency of environmental governance inputs. Based on the results, the study proposes that the eastern provinces can be an example for promoting balanced regional development and offers policy recommendations such as taking precautions against environmental emergencies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 717
Eleonora Santos ◽  
Rui Alexandre Castanho

The aim of this work is to understand the impact of size on the performance of transnational corporations (TNCs) operating in the textile and clothing industry in Portugal during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, we used ORBIS data for the period 2019–2020 and narrative, financial and correlation analyses to assess the performance of five companies. Thus far, the impact of company size on the competitiveness of Portuguese textile affiliates during the pandemic has remained unexplored. The results show that smaller firms performed better than larger ones, likely due to the higher fixed costs of the latter at times when orders declined worldwide. Our analysis suggests that there are some characteristics of TNCs that matter in explaining company-level performance during crises, such as management experience and flexibility. Furthermore, as Portugal is a major European textile exporter, it is useful for the host country to assess the economic sustainability of its foreign investors. The results provide some policy recommendations regarding the promotion of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Portugal.

2022 ◽  
Robert E. Larzelere ◽  
Marjorie Lindner Gunnoe ◽  
Joshua Pritsker ◽  
Christopher J. Ferguson ◽  
Carla Adkison-Johnson ◽  

The reputation of psychological science depends on the adequacy of the science underlying its policy recommendations. This commentary raises concerns about the science used by Heilman et al. (2021) in their recent narrative (not meta-analytic) review that encourages spanking bans worldwide. By reviewing controlled longitudinal studies, Heilmann et al. provided stronger causal evidence than the two meta-analyses of unadjusted correlations most frequently cited to support spanking bans. However, the two previously published meta-analyses of controlled longitudinal studies of spanking do not support spanking bans, due to the trivial size of the average adverse-looking effect of customary spanking in those studies. Moreover, several lines of evidence indicate that this trivial average effect is likely due to inadequate statistical controls rather than an actual adverse causal effect of typical spanking. We need stronger causal evidence for policy recommendations for both the welfare of children and the reputation of psychological science.

Shameena Gill ◽  
Alia Maisara Adenan ◽  
Adli Ali ◽  
Noor Akmal Shareela Ismail

The aim of this review is to highlight the spectrum on which human behavior has been affected by blanket restriction measures and on a wider scale, the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of the human behaviors that have been impacted by the COVID-19 lockdown are dietary behavior and nutrition, food options and food delivery usage, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This is important in planning effective public health strategies with minimal detriment to all subsets of society as well as improving the distribution of government aid to populations that are more severely affected. Our main purpose is to present the literature from a rapidly growing pool of scientific research to hopefully enable a better and more comprehensive understanding of the effects of this pandemic and the lessons learnt from the accompanying restrictions, as well as policy recommendations that can be made in national pandemic responses in the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Avik Sinha ◽  
Arnab Adhikari ◽  
Ashish Kumar Jha

PurposeThis study aims to analyze the socio-ecological policy trade-off caused by technological innovations in the post-COVID-19 era. The study outcomes are utilized to design a comprehensive policy framework for attaining sustainable development goals (SDGs).Design/methodology/approachStudy is done for 100 countries over 1991–2019. Second-generation estimation method is used. Innovation is measured by total factor productivity, environmental quality is measured by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and social dimension is captured by unemployment.FindingsInnovation–CO2 emissions association is found to be inverted U-shaped and innovation–unemployment association is found to be U-shaped.Research limitations/implicationsThe study outcomes show the conflicting impact of technological innovation leading to policy trade-off. This dual impact of innovation is considered during policy recommendation.Practical implicationsThe policy framework recommended in the study shows a way to address the objectives of SDG 8, 9 and 13 during post-COVID-19 period.Social implicationsPolicy recommendations in the study show a way to internalize the negative social externality exerted by innovation.Originality/valueThis study contributes to the literature by considering the policy trade-off caused by innovation and recommending an SDG-oriented policy framework for the post-COVID-19 era.

Gamze Ozturk Danisman

Building on the natural-resource-based view, and using a sample of 7,165 European SMEs, this chapter investigates the drivers of eco-design innovations among SMEs under three categories: (1) sustainability-oriented firm capabilities, (2) technological capabilities, and (3) access to finance. The findings reveal that sustainability-oriented capabilities achieved through investments into circular economy are the strongest driver of SMEs' eco-design innovations. Firms' technological capabilities are also found to boost their ability to adopt eco-design innovations. While equity finance increases the possibilities for SMEs to devote resources to eco-design, grant finance is interestingly observed to decrease such possibilities. The more traditionally used form of debt finance remains detached from eco-design implementations. The study contributes to a better understanding of how eco-design practices can be broadened within SMEs and highlights policy recommendations in this regard.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1064-1086
Selda Gorkey

Women constitute one of the risk groups vulnerable to poverty; therefore, enabling their participation in the labor force is crucial to promoting social inclusion in a society. Employment in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector is widely known for being male-dominated, and recently women's participation has become an important subject. This chapter aims to examine women's employment in Turkey's ICT sector from 2009 to 2016, from a social inclusion perspective, by using various indicators. Comparisons with European Union (EU) countries provide perspective on tracking the progress of employment structure and education choices for ICT by gender. All indicators signify the existence of a gender gap resulting in low rates of inclusion of women in Turkey's ICT employment during the period. Examination of the reasons leads to making some policy recommendations to promote social inclusion of women in Turkey's ICT employment.

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