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2022 ◽  
pp. 000276422110660
Author(s):  
Heba Gowayed ◽  
Ashley Mears ◽  
Nicholas Occhiuto

How, in the wake of the coronavirus crisis, do workers respond to rapid changes in the labor market? This paper mobilizes existing literature on occupational mobility and job loss to develop a theory of situational human capital in which some workers are better positioned to weather occupational transitions than others depending on the alignment between their skill sets, opportunities, and particular contexts. Previous literature looks at this in the case of “pausing,” when workers, such as women, take time off from work. Relatively less explored but equally consequential are transitions like “pivoting,” in which workers maneuver within their occupations to adjust their practices or platforms in order to keep working, and “shifting,” in which workers change their occupations altogether. Since most government unemployment benefits focus almost exclusively on workers’ pauses, they neglect to support workers as they pivot and shift during periods of labor market instability and disruption. This paper concludes by offering some policy recommendations to fill this gap.


Author(s):  
Reneiloe Malomane ◽  
Innocent Musonda ◽  
Chioma Sylvia Okoro

The fourth industrial revolution (4iR) technologies offer an opportunity for the construction industry to improve health and safety (H&S) compliance. Therefore, implementing the technologies is of top priority to improve the endless H&S incidents in construction projects, which lead to poor quality of work, late project delivery, and increased labour injury claims. Central to improving the nature of work and other industrial processes, the 4iR technologies have emerged. Concurrent with this trend is the importance of 4iR technologies in enhancing health and safety performance on construction sites. However, the implementation of 4iR technologies in the construction industry is faced with various challenges. Therefore, this paper reports on a study aimed at examining the challenges associated with implementing 4iR technologies in the construction sector in South Africa towards effective management of H&S. The study followed a systematic literature review, data collection using a questionnaire survey and thereafter, descriptive, and inferential analyses were conducted. The findings revealed that the implementation of 4iR technologies is challenged by a lack of adequate relevant skills, the unavailability of training capacities, expensive technologies, and negative perceptions such as fear of job loss by industry professionals. The findings are essential for the advancement of H&S research and implementation. In addition, the findings are important to industry decision-makers in order to elevate their awareness and promote the use of 4iR technologies to manage construction activities. The study implications include the need for the construction industry to collaborate with higher education institutions to conduct research and include 4iR in the curriculum.


2022 ◽  
pp. 263501062110653
Author(s):  
Rachel S. Purvis ◽  
Ramey A. Moore ◽  
Britni L. Ayers ◽  
Holly C. Felix ◽  
Sheldon Riklon ◽  
...  

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore experiences of Marshallese adults related to diabetes self-care behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was utilized to understand participants’ diabetes self-care behaviors during the pandemic. Nine focus groups with 53 participants were held via videoconference and conducted in English, Marshallese, or a mixture of both languages. A priori codes based on diabetes self-care behaviors provided a framework for analyzing and summarizing participant experiences. Results: Both increases and decreases in healthy eating and exercise were described, with improvements in health behaviors attributed to health education messaging via social media. Participants reported increased stress and difficulty monitoring and managing glucose. Difficulty obtaining medication and difficulty seeing their health care provider regularly was reported and attributed to health care provider availability and lack of insurance due to job loss. Conclusions: The study provides significant insight into the reach of health education campaigns via social media and provides important information about the reasons for delays in care, which extend beyond fear of contracting COVID-19 to structural issues.


2022 ◽  
pp. 107755872110624
Author(s):  
Yulya Truskinovsky ◽  
Jessica M. Finlay ◽  
Lindsay C. Kobayashi

Little is known about the effects of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on older family caregivers. Using data from a national sample of 2,485 U.S. adults aged ≥55, we aimed to describe the magnitude of disruptions to family care arrangements during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the associations between these disruptions and the mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, loneliness, and self-rated health) and employment outcomes (job loss or furlough, hours or wages reduced, transition to work-from-home) of family caregivers. We found that COVID-19 disrupted over half of family caregiving arrangements, and that care disruptions were associated with increased depression, anxiety, and loneliness among caregivers, compared with both noncaregivers and caregivers who did not experience disruptions. Family caregivers who experienced pandemic-related employment disruptions were providing more care than caregivers who did not experience disruptions. These findings highlight the impact of the pandemic on an essential and vulnerable health care workforce.


Author(s):  
Union of Concerned Scientists Earthjustice

More than 180 preventable incidents at hazardous chemicals facilities occur each year, resulting in deaths, injuries, evacuations, shelter in place orders, environmental contamination, and facility shutdowns with permanent job loss. As of June 17, 2021, the Chemical Safety Board (CSB) had nineteen open site investigations of incidents that in total killed thirty-two people, injured at least eighty-seven people, led to thousands of residents sheltering in place or evacuating, and resulted in many millions of dollars in property damage. This document outlines twenty-one practical and measurable actions that the CSB can take to rebuild its investigative and recommendations capacity; set clear priorities for agency action; reform its governance policies; and increase public transparency and engagement. The proposed actions address incident investigations, safety studies, safety recommendations, agency governance, and public transparency and engagement.


2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 697-713
Author(s):  
Lirong Liu ◽  
◽  
Steven Shwiff ◽  
Stephanie Shwiff ◽  
Maryfrances Miller ◽  
...  

This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on the US and Texas economy using a computable general equilibrium model, REMI PI+. We consider three scenarios based on economic forecasts from various sources, including the University of Michigan’s RSQE (Research Seminar in Quantitative Economics), IMF, and the Wi orld Bank. We report a GDP loss of $106 million (a 6% decline) with 1.2 million jobs lost (6.6%) in Texas in 2020. At the national level, GDP loss is $996 billion (a 5% decline) with 11.5 million jobs lost (5.5%) in the same year. By 2026, the aggregate total GDP loss in Texas ranges from $378 to $629 million. The estimated unemployment rate in Texas in 2021 ranges from 5% to 7.7%, depending on modeling assumptions. The granularity of the CGE results allow examination of the most and least impacted industries. Health Care and Social Assistance, Construction, and Accommodation and Food Services incur the most job loss while State and Local Government and Farm will likely see an increase in jobs for 2020. These insights separate our work from most current impact studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 2157-2164
Author(s):  
Carolina Muñoz- Corona ◽  
Elia Lara-Lona ◽  
Christian Andrés Díaz- Chávez ◽  
Gilberto Flores- Vargas ◽  
Daniel Alberto Díaz- Martínez ◽  
...  

Background. COVID-19 has caused 244,830 deaths in Mexico. Evaluating the severity of this contingency is possible if the hospital fatality rate of COVID-19 is described because hospitalized patients present more severe conditions. Objective. To analyze the fatality of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. Methods. A quantitative, descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional, and retrospective study was conducted using open database from Ministry of Health in Mexico. Results. The analysis included 71,189 discharges from patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the Mexican Ministry of Health Hospitals during 2020. Of them, 27,403 were due to death, predominantly in men and age groups from 50 to 69 years. The general hospital fatality due to COVID-19 was 38.49%, a hospital fatality of 40.75% in men and 35.03% in women. The 55-to-99-year-old age groups, Baja California, Puebla, and Coahuila had a higher hospital fatality than the general fatality. Conclusion. Besides the deaths caused directly by COVID-19 (those that occurred due to respiratory failures), many deaths were indirect in persons with comorbidities exacerbated by this disease. Access to health services, social changes derived from job loss, home protection, and changes in social dynamics, facts expressed in the general mortality excess, cannot be quantified in our study. There are similar patterns with other persons infected worldwide: this disease is more severe for males and older age subjects.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 161
Author(s):  
Jackie Yenerall ◽  
Kimberly Jensen

COVID-19 has negatively impacted many households’ financial well-being, food security, and mental health status. This paper investigates the role financial resources play in understanding the relationship between food security and mental health among U.S. households using data from a survey in June 2020. Results show job loss and savings draw down to pay for household bills had a significant relationship with both lower food security and greater numbers of poor mental health days during the pandemic.


Author(s):  
Mohd Azren Hassan ◽  
Nur Atiqah Anuar Zabidi ◽  
Hidayati Ramli ◽  
Adam Aruldewan S. Muthuveeran ◽  
Yusfida Ayu Abdullah

In 2020, the spread of Coronavirus (COVID-19) had a global impact on normal daily life. The Government of Malaysia officially declared the Movement Control Order (MCO), an official national lockdown, to reduce the virus’s spread. In the face of the unprecedented global health pandemic, Malaysia had struggled to protect its citizens’ welfare and livelihoods, particularly in the hardest-hit rural areas. Therefore, this study uses the sustainable livelihood approach (SLA) focusing on the aspect of financial assets and government intervention to enhance understanding on the vulnerability in rural area’s livelihood. Pasir Puteh, Kelantan was identified as the rural area for this study. The analysis was performed on a questionnaire survey based on convenience sampling of 62 respondents. Cross table analysis and a correlation test were used to examine the livelihood of the rural area concerning the financial assets, government intervention and vulnerability. The findings indicated that the MCO had a substantial impact on the rural area regarding the vulnerability toward the financial assets, such as employment status, job loss, increasing living costs, and an insufficient response to rural economic challenges. At the same time, there is no substantial government intervention in the welfare of rural areas. According to the results, the study concluded that the government should set up training courses to assist in the long-term recovery of rural areas due to the enforced lockdown, which has adversely affected rural livelihoods.


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