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Santosh Kumar Mishra ◽  
Gaurav Rai ◽  
Sriparna Saha ◽  
Pushpak Bhattacharyya

Image captioning refers to the process of generating a textual description that describes objects and activities present in a given image. It connects two fields of artificial intelligence, computer vision, and natural language processing. Computer vision and natural language processing deal with image understanding and language modeling, respectively. In the existing literature, most of the works have been carried out for image captioning in the English language. This article presents a novel method for image captioning in the Hindi language using encoder–decoder based deep learning architecture with efficient channel attention. The key contribution of this work is the deployment of an efficient channel attention mechanism with bahdanau attention and a gated recurrent unit for developing an image captioning model in the Hindi language. Color images usually consist of three channels, namely red, green, and blue. The channel attention mechanism focuses on an image’s important channel while performing the convolution, which is basically to assign higher importance to specific channels over others. The channel attention mechanism has been shown to have great potential for improving the efficiency of deep convolution neural networks (CNNs). The proposed encoder–decoder architecture utilizes the recently introduced ECA-NET CNN to integrate the channel attention mechanism. Hindi is the fourth most spoken language globally, widely spoken in India and South Asia; it is India’s official language. By translating the well-known MSCOCO dataset from English to Hindi, a dataset for image captioning in Hindi is manually created. The efficiency of the proposed method is compared with other baselines in terms of Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU) scores, and the results obtained illustrate that the method proposed outperforms other baselines. The proposed method has attained improvements of 0.59%, 2.51%, 4.38%, and 3.30% in terms of BLEU-1, BLEU-2, BLEU-3, and BLEU-4 scores, respectively, with respect to the state-of-the-art. Qualities of the generated captions are further assessed manually in terms of adequacy and fluency to illustrate the proposed method’s efficacy.

Saurabh R. Sangwan ◽  
M. P. S. Bhatia

Cyberspace has been recognized as a conducive environment for use of various hostile, direct, and indirect behavioural tactics to target individuals or groups. Denigration is one of the most frequently used cyberbullying ploys to actively damage, humiliate, and disparage the online reputation of target by sending, posting, or publishing cruel rumours, gossip, and untrue statements. Previous pertinent studies report detecting profane, vulgar, and offensive words primarily in the English language. This research puts forward a model to detect online denigration bullying in low-resource Hindi language using attention residual networks. The proposed model Hindi Denigrate Comment–Attention Residual Network (HDC-ARN) intends to uncover defamatory posts (denigrate comments) written in Hindi language which stake and vilify a person or an entity in public. Data with 942 denigrate comments and 1499 non-denigrate comments is scraped using certain hashtags from two recent trending events in India: Tablighi Jamaat spiked Covid-19 (April 2020, Event 1) and Sushant Singh Rajput Death (June 2020: Event 2). Only text-based features, that is, the actual content of the post, are considered. The pre-trained word embedding for Hindi language from fastText is used. The model has three ResNet blocks with an attention layer that generates a post vector for a single input, which is passed through a sigmoid activation function to get the final output as either denigrate (positive class) or non-denigrate (negative class). An F-1 score of 0.642 is achieved on the dataset.

Mohinder Kumar ◽  
M. K. Jindal ◽  
Munish Kumar

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
Alaka Atreya Chudal

This paper will focus on a 20th century Nepali intellectual, Ram Mani Acharya Dixit (1883–1972), and his trans-border activities for the promotion of the vernacular by investigating his integration of the progress of a language with his nation, his apotheosis of the vernacular and his devotion in strengthening prose writing for the sake of the development of the divine mother tongue. Foregrounding his linguistic activities such as writing, publishing and printing in Nepal and India, with Benares in particular, it will try to answer questions such as: What was the motivating factor that inspired him to write and publish in the Nepali language? Was he in any way influenced by the Hindi language movement that was at its peak in North India of the time? How influential was Dixit’s role in standardizing Nepali? Besides this Nepali language standardization concern, the paper will also examine Dixit’s idea of serving mother, motherland, mother tongue and [Hindu] religion through service to a language.

YMER Digital ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (12) ◽  
pp. 643-655
Mr. Pradeep N Fale ◽  
Dr. Krishan Kumar Goyal ◽  

Individual to individual correspondence objections are very renowned these days. With over 70% of the general population using relational connection objections satisfactorily in India, Hindi correspondence is the most notable. More than 80% of Indians use Hindi as a technique for correspondence. Websites like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Instagram and WhatsApp have been utilized by people and particularly by teens today. Through individuals-to-individuals like Twitter, Facebook, and so on, the sound of content is shared. Finally, these structures ended up being more many-sided in addressing the necessities of customers to look at their step by step undertakings, feelings and evaluations by posting clear (information) with their associates. Reliably, huge data is shared at different levels of online media. In this article, we will present and discuss thoroughly the execution of message channels for the Hindi language to recognize and prevent harsh substances in relational associations.

YMER Digital ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (12) ◽  
pp. 258-267
Rudranarayan Mohapatra ◽  

Localization is a process of adopting a culture and/or the reflection of a culture, what is true for Odia literature is more or less true for literature from other states also. Globalization, in many subtle ways, devalues the “local” and encourages a homogenization of culture. Here, localization has a role to play in establishing the uniqueness of the “local,” in this instance Odisha or India. Localization assumes vital importance for it establishes a dialogue between language and culture and acquaints communities with other ways of looking at life and experience. Localization is the force that makes it possible to imagine such a map—a map that, when fully sketched, would represent a wonderland of literary riches from diverse languages, all made intelligible to one another. In this paper, to understand the above things along with how the factors of localization components affect cultural ethos, we have adopted the iceberg model of culture and catalyzed it upon an eighteenth-century Odia classic Chatura Binoda, the masterpiece of poet Brajanath Badajena by localizing the same to Hindi language and as a result, determine how the deep-rooted cultural ethos is being loosened irrespective of the knowledge of both language and culture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 939-954
Praffullit Tripathi ◽  
Prasenjit Mukherjee ◽  
Manik Hendre ◽  
Manish Godse ◽  
Baisakhi Chakraborty

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 166-169
Taniya Verma ◽  
Chitra Kataria

Background: Shoulder pain is one of the most frequent complaints of Paraplegia with a prevalence reported to range from 50% to 60%.It has been attributed to the increase in upper extremity (UE) weight bearing following lower extremity paralysis. Purpose of the study: To develop and Evaluate an Evidence Based Patient Education Booklet in Hindi Language for Prevention of Shoulder Pain in Paraplegia along with pictorial presentation. Design: A methodological study Method: It consist of 4 steps. 1) Literature review and informal interview of 2 doctors, 7 physiotherapists, 5 occupational therapists and 10 patients were used to determine the domains of the education booklet. 2) Development of content of the evidence based patient education booklet according to domains found in step 1 and develop a rough draft of booklet in Hindi Language. 3) Evaluation of the evidence based booklet by expert panel using SAM and to modify the booklet to produce the final booklet draft. 4) Pilot study on patients to take their views regarding the booklet developed. Results: The domains found in step 1 were: Education about pain, Education about the treatment options, Ergonomics modifications, Positioning, Wheel chair selection and transfer techniques, Exercises, General precautions. The content was developed in step 2. In step 3 the SAM score is- 88.13% and final booklet was produced after modification. In step 4 the patient rated the booklet easy to read and understand with an overall rating of 9/10 Conclusion: The developed patient education booklet came out to be easy to read and understand and of superior quality according to Suitability assessment of material questionnaire and hence should be made a part of patient education. Keywords: Patient education booklet, Shoulder pain in paraplegia, Suitability assessment of material questionnaire, booklet in Hindi language, Pain prevention and management, Health education material

Religions ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 927
Jackson Barkley Stephenson

The Apabhraṃśa dohā is a literary medium from Indian antiquity, with early examples appearing in Kālidāsa’s plays around the 5th century and continuing in later Hindi-language Jain and Bhakti works in the early modern period. However, it was within Tantric Buddhist texts and traditions that the dohā truly came into its own as a literary genre. Particularly within the “Yoginī Tantra” strata of the Tantric Buddhist canon, Apabhraṃśa dohās appear in notable and formulaic ways, used within ritual contexts and other significant junctures, signaling the underexamined use of this literary form and its language of composition. This paper examines the use of dohās attributed to the mahāsiddha Saraha as they are used in the Hevajra Tantra, the Buddhakapāla Tantra, and some associated texts. In doing so, this paper demonstrates that as a literary genre, Apabhraṃśa dohās perform a similar function to mantras and dhāraṇīs, but are unique in their attention to phonology and discursive meaning. By examining the uses of these dohās during particular moments of Tantric Buddhist ritual syntax, this paper will then reflect on the later trajectory of these verses after the death of institutional Buddhism in India, and the reasons for their survival.

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