prnp gene
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Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 3132
Yong-Chan Kim ◽  
Byung-Hoon Jeong

Prion diseases are fatal, chronic, and incurable neurodegenerative diseases caused by pathogenic forms of prion protein (PrPSc) derived from endogenous forms of prion protein (PrPC). Several case–control and genome-wide association studies have reported that the M129V polymorphism of the human prion protein gene (PRNP) is significantly associated with susceptibility to sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD). However, since some case–control studies have not shown these associations, the results remain controversial. We collected data that contain the genotype and allele frequencies of the M129V single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the PRNP gene and information on ethnic backgrounds from sporadic CJD patients. We performed a meta-analysis by collecting data from eligible studies to evaluate the association between the M129V SNP of the PRNP gene and susceptibility to sporadic CJD. We found a very strong association between the M129V SNP of the PRNP gene and susceptibility to sporadic CJD using a meta-analysis for the first time. We validated the eligibility of existing reports and found severe heterogeneity in some previous studies. We also found that the MM homozygote is a potent risk factor for sporadic CJD compared to the MV heterozygote in the heterozygote comparison model (MM vs. MV, odds ratio = 4.9611, 95% confidence interval: 3.4785; 7.0758, p < 1 × 10−10). To the best of our knowledge, this was the first meta-analysis assessment of the relationship between the M129V SNP of the PRNP gene and susceptibility to sporadic CJD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 429 ◽  
pp. 118253
Federica Cencini ◽  
Giuseppe Di Fede ◽  
Marcella Catania ◽  
Chiara Manfredi ◽  
Chiara Rosci ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (7) ◽  
pp. e1009795
Samia Hannaoui ◽  
Elizabeth Triscott ◽  
Camilo Duque Velásquez ◽  
Sheng Chun Chang ◽  
Maria Immaculata Arifin ◽  

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease affecting cervids. Polymorphisms in the prion protein gene can result in extended survival of CWD-infected animals. However, the impact of polymorphisms on cellular prion protein (PrPC) and prion properties is less understood. Previously, we characterized the effects of a polymorphism at codon 116 (A>G) of the white-tailed deer (WTD) prion protein and determined that it destabilizes PrPC structure. Comparing CWD isolates from WTD expressing homozygous wild-type (116AA) or heterozygous (116AG) PrP, we found that 116AG-prions were conformationally less stable, more sensitive to proteases, with lower seeding activity in cell-free conversion and reduced infectivity. Here, we aimed to understand CWD strain emergence and adaptation. We show that the WTD-116AG isolate contains two different prion strains, distinguished by their host range, biochemical properties, and pathogenesis from WTD-116AA prions (Wisc-1). Serial passages of WTD-116AG prions in tg(CerPrP)1536+/+ mice overexpressing wild-type deer-PrPC revealed two populations of mice with short and long incubation periods, respectively, and remarkably prolonged clinical phase upon inoculation with WTD-116AG prions. Inoculation of serially diluted brain homogenates confirmed the presence of two strains in the 116AG isolate with distinct pathology in the brain. Interestingly, deglycosylation revealed proteinase K-resistant fragments with different electrophoretic mobility in both tg(CerPrP)1536+/+ mice and Syrian golden hamsters infected with WTD-116AG. Infection of tg60 mice expressing deer S96-PrP with 116AG, but not Wisc-1 prions induced clinical disease. On the contrary, bank voles resisted 116AG prions, but not Wisc-1 infection. Our data indicate that two strains co-existed in the WTD-116AG isolate, expanding the variety of CWD prion strains. We argue that the 116AG isolate does not contain Wisc-1 prions, indicating that the presence of 116G-PrPC diverted 116A-PrPC from adopting a Wisc-1 structure. This can have important implications for their possible distinct capacities to cross species barriers into both cervids and non-cervids.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 435
Dana Kosorinova ◽  
Girma Belay ◽  
Dana Zakova ◽  
Martin Stelzer ◽  
Eva Mitrova

The most frequent human prion disease is Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD). It occurs as sporadic (sCJD), genetic (gCJD), iatrogenic (iCJD) form and as variant CJD. The genetic form represents about 10–15% of confirmed cases worldwide, in Slovakia as much as 65–75%. Focal accumulation of gCJD was confirmed in Orava region. The most common point mutation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) is E200K. CJD has a long asymptomatic phase and it is not known when the carriers of the mutation E200K become infectious. Precautions to prevent iCJD are focused especially on clinical CJD cases, but asymptomatic CJD-specific mutation carriers cannot be excluded, and represent a potential genetic CJD-risk group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence, frequency and geographic distribution of the E200K mutation among the newborns, comparing the areas of focal accumulation of gCJD with extra-focal ones, as well as distribution of the polymorphism M129V of the PRNP gene. A total of 2915 samples of dry blood spots from anonymous newborns were analyzed. We used RealTime PCR method to determine the presence of the E200K mutation and the M129V polymorphism. Genetic testing revealed 13 carriers of the E200K mutation. Investigation of the M129V polymorphism affirmed higher representation of methionine homozygotes (48% MM, 44% MV, 8% VV). Achieved results fully confirmed our previous observations concerning both the specific and nonspecific genetic CJD risk among the Slovak general population. The 48% of methionine homozygotes and 4 carriers of the E200K mutation among 1000 live-born children in Slovakia underline the benefits of genetic testing.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 193
Min-Ju Jeong ◽  
Yong-Chan Kim ◽  
Byung-Hoon Jeong

Pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc), converted from normal prion protein (PrPC), causes prion disease. Although prion disease has been reported in several mammalian species, chickens are known to show strong resistance to prion diseases. In addition to chickens, the domestic duck occupies a large proportion in the poultry industry and may be regarded as a potential resistant host against prion disease. However, the DNA sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP) has not been reported in domestic ducks. Here, we performed amplicon sequencing targeting the duck PRNP gene with the genomic DNA of Pekin ducks. In addition, we aligned the PrP sequence of the Pekin duck with that of various species using ClustalW2 and carried out phylogenetic analysis using Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis X (MEGA X). We also constructed the structural modeling of the tertiary and secondary structures in avian PrP using SWISS-MODEL. Last, we investigated the aggregation propensity on Pekin duck PrP using AMYCO. We first reported the DNA sequence of the PRNP gene in Pekin ducks and found that the PrP sequence of Pekin ducks is more similar to that of geese than to that of chickens and mallards (wild ducks). Interestingly, Pekin duck PrP showed a high proportion of β-sheets compared to that of chicken PrP, and a high aggregation propensity compared to that of avian PrPs. However, Pekin duck PrP with substitutions of chicken-specific amino acids showed reduced aggregation propensities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the genetic characteristics of the PRNP sequence in Pekin ducks.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 333
Martina Torricelli ◽  
Carla Sebastiani ◽  
Marcella Ciullo ◽  
Simone Ceccobelli ◽  
Barbara Chiappini ◽  

In goats, as in sheep, genotypes of the prion protein gene (PRNP) can influence animals’ susceptibility to scrapie. Since the polymorphic codons in sheep are well known, a genetic selection plan has been implemented in Europe, in order to reduce the prevalence of susceptible genotypes to scrapie. In Italy, no breeding plan for scrapie resistance in goats has been adopted, yet. Likewise, according to the most recent modification of Regulation EU 999/2001 (Regulation EU 772/2020) of the European Commission (EU), based on all the available experimental and in field data, K222, D146 and S146 polymorphisms could be used as scrapie resistance alleles in genetic management both in scrapie outbreaks and in disease prevention. In order to collect data on the variability of PRNP, the present study aimed to analyze the sequence of the PRNP gene in eight Italian local goat populations/breeds reared in central and southern Italy (Bianca Monticellana, Capestrina, Facciuta della Valnerina, Fulva del Lazio, Garganica, Grigia Ciociara, Grigia Molisana, and Teramana), some of which were investigated for the first time; moreover, two cosmopolitan breeds (Alpine and Saanen) were included. Blood samples were collected from 219 goats. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood. DNA was used as template in PCR amplification of the entire PRNP open reading frame (ORF). Purified amplicons have been sequenced and aligned to Capra hircus PRNP. Particularly, the alleles carrying the resistance-related 222 K polymorphism occurred in all populations with a frequency between 2.5% and 12.5%. An additional resistance allele carrying the S146 variant was observed with a frequency of 3.7% only in the Alpine breed. For three of the estimated alleles, we could not establish if the found double polymorphisms in heterozygosis were in phase, due to technical limitations. In this context, in addition to selective culling in scrapie outbreaks according to the European regulation in force, in the future, selection plans could be adopted to deal with scrapie and to control its diffusion, meanwhile paying attention to preserve a high variability of PRNP.

Genes ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Hyeon-Ho Kim ◽  
Yong-Chan Kim ◽  
Kiwon Kim ◽  
An-Dang Kim ◽  
Byung-Hoon Jeong

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by vacuolation and gliosis in the brain. Prion diseases have been reported in several mammals, and genetic polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) play an essential role in the vulnerability of prion diseases. However, to date, investigations of PRNP polymorphisms are rare in cats, which are the major host of feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE). Thus, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of the cat PRNP gene and analyzed the structural characteristics of the PrP of cats compared to those of dog, prion disease-resistant animal. To investigate the genetic variations of the cat PRNP gene in 208 cats, we performed amplicon sequencing and examined the genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of cat PRNP polymorphisms. We evaluated the influence of cat PRNP polymorphisms using PolyPhen-2, PANTHER, PROVEAN and AMYCO. In addition, we carried out structural analysis of cat PrP according to the allele of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (c.457G > A, Glu153Lys) using Swiss-PdbViewer. Finally, we compared the structural differences between cat and canine PrPs for SNPs associated with prion disease resistance in dogs. We identified a total of 15 polymorphisms, including 14 novel SNPs and one insertion/deletion polymorphism (InDel). Among them, Glu153Lys was predicted to affect the structural stability and amyloid propensity of cat PrP. In addition, asparagine at codon 166 of cat PrP was predicted to have longer hydrogen bond than aspartic acid at codon 163 of canine PrP. Furthermore, substitution to dog-specific amino acids in cat PrP showed an increase in structural stability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the structural characteristics of cat PRNP gene.

2020 ◽  
Sarah E Haworth ◽  
Larissa Nituch ◽  
Joseph M Northrup ◽  
Aaron BA Shafer

AbstractAssessments of the adaptive potential in natural populations are essential for understanding and predicting responses to environmental stressors like climate change and infectious disease. Species face a range of stressors in human-dominated landscapes, often with contrasting effects. White-tailed deer (deer) are expanding in the northern part of their range following decreasing winter severity and increasing forage availability. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease affecting cervids, is likewise expanding and represents a major threat to deer and other cervids. We obtained tissue samples from free-ranging deer across their native range in Ontario, Canada which has yet to detect CWD in wild populations of cervids. We used high-throughput sequencing to assess neutral genomic variation, and variation in the PRNP gene that is partly responsible for the protein misfolding when deer contract CWD. Neutral variation revealed a high number of rare alleles and no population structure, and demographic models suggested a rapid historical population expansion. Allele frequencies of PRNP variants associated with CWD susceptibility and disease progression were evenly distributed across the landscape and consistent with deer populations not infected with CWD. We then estimated the selection coefficient of CWD, with simulations showing an observable and rapid shift in PRNP allele frequencies that coincides with the start of a novel CWD epidemic. Sustained surveillance of genomic and PRNP variation can be a useful tool for CWD-free regions where deer are managed for ecological and economic benefits.

2020 ◽  
Vol 14 (5) ◽  
pp. 19-24
mana zakeri ◽  
amir hosein babaei ◽  
mohamad taghi akbari ◽  
shohreh zare ◽  
faravar khordadpoor ◽  

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