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Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 153
Author(s):  
Miguel A. Gutiérrez-Reinoso ◽  
Constanza J. Aguilera ◽  
Felipe Navarrete ◽  
Joel Cabezas ◽  
Fidel O. Castro ◽  
...  

Over the last few years, several commercial FSH products have been developed for cattle superovulation (SOV) purposes in Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) programs. The SOV response is highly variable among individuals and remains one of the main limiting factors in obtaining a profitable number of transferable embryos. In this study, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from different origins was included in two SOV protocols, (a) FSH from purified pig pituitary extract (NIH-FSH-p; two doses/day, 12 h apart, four consecutive days); and (b) extra-long-acting bovine recombinant FSH (bscrFSH; a single dose/day, four consecutive days), to test the effects of bscrFSH on the ovarian response, hormone profile levels, in vivo embryo production and the pluripotency gene expression of the obtained embryos. A total of 68 healthy primiparous red Angus cows (Bos taurus) were randomly distributed into two experimental groups (n = 34 each). Blood sample collection for progesterone (P4) and cortisol (C) level determination was performed together with ultrasonographic assessment for ovarian size, follicles (FL) and corpora lutea (CL) quantification in each SOV protocol (Day 0, 4, 8, and 15). Moreover, FSH profiles were monitorised throughout both protocols (Day 0, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 15). In vivo embryo quantity and quality (total structures, morulae, blastocysts, viable, degenerated and blocked embryos) were recorded in each SOV protocol. Finally, embryo quality in both protocols was assessed by the analysis of the expression level of crucial genes for early embryo development (OCT4, IFNt, CDX2, BCL2, and BAX). P4 and cortisol concentration peaks in both SOV protocols were obtained on Day 15 and Day 8, respectively, which were statistically different compared to the other time-points (p < 0.05). Ovarian dimensions increased from Day 0 to Day 15 irrespective of the SOV protocol considered (p < 0.05). Significant changes in CL number were observed over time till Day 15 irrespective of the SOV protocol applied (p < 0.05), being non- significantly different between SOV protocols within each time-point (p > 0.05). The number of CL was higher on Day 15 in the bscrFSH group compared to the NIH-FSH-p group (p < 0.05). The number of embryonic structures recovered was higher in the bscrFSH group (p = 0.025), probably as a result of a tendency towards a greater number of follicles developed compared to the NIH-FSH-p group. IFNt and BAX were overexpressed in embryos from the bscrFSH group (p < 0.05), with a fold change of 16 and 1.3, respectively. However, no statistical differences were detected regarding the OCT4, CDX2, BCL2, and BCL2/BAX expression ratio (p > 0.05). In conclusion, including bscrFSH in SOV protocols could be an important alternative by reducing the number of applications and offering an improved ovarian response together with better embryo quality and superior performance in embryo production compared to NIH-FSH-p SOV protocols.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 154
Author(s):  
Hanneke Hermans ◽  
Ralph A. Lloyd-Edwards ◽  
Aukje J. H. Ferrão-van Sommeren ◽  
Anne A. Tersmette ◽  
Jacobine C. M. Schouten ◽  
...  

In standing ophthalmic surgery in horses, a retrobulbar nerve block (RNB) is often placed blindly for anesthesia and akinesia. The ultrasound (US)-guided RNB may have fewer complications, but the two techniques have only been compared once in equine cadavers. This study compares the techniques for success and complication rates and analyzes the effect of training on US guidance. Twenty-two equine cadavers were divided into three groups: blind RNBs were performed bilaterally in eight cadavers, US-guided RNBs were performed bilaterally in seven cadavers, and after US-guided training, blind RNBs were performed bilaterally in seven cadavers. All RNBs were performed by the same two inexperienced operators, and a combination of contrast medium (CM; 1.25 mL) and methylene blue dye (1.25 mL) were injected (2.5 mL total volume). Needle positioning in the periorbita and the distance of the CM to the optic foramen were assessed using computerized tomography (CT). Dye spreading was evaluated by dissection. In group 1, 37.5% of the injections were in the optimal central position in the periorbita; in group 2, 75% and in group 3, 71.4%. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding needle position (groups 1 and 2 p = 0.056; groups 1 and 3 p = 0.069, groups 2 and 3 p = 0.8). The mean CM distribution distance was not significantly different between all groups. Group 1 had 18.75% intraocular injections versus 0% in group 2 and 7.1% in group 3 (not significant). US guidance showed no significant increases in accuracy nor decreases in complications. However, the effects on accuracy showed a trend towards significant improvement, and larger scale follow-up studies might show significant training effects on US guidance.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 155
Author(s):  
Livia Ferro ◽  
Stefano Ciccarelli ◽  
Giacomo Stanzani ◽  
Lisa Nappi ◽  
Francesca Angelini ◽  
...  

In humans, mirtazapine can prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and improve cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL). This drug is being increasingly used as an appetite stimulant in cats. The hypothesis of this retrospective study was that mirtazapine could reduce the incidence of CINV and weight loss in feline patients affected by lymphoma. The objectives were to report the use of mirtazapine transdermal ointment and assess the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and weight loss in cats diagnosed with lymphoma and receiving chemotherapy. Transdermal mirtazapine was topically administered to the inner surface of the pinna (2 mg/cat/daily) for 14 days following chemotherapy administration. Data recorded from 20 patients were collected. Different grades of GI toxicity were shown in 8/20 (40%) patients. Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) improved in 12/20 (60%), 6/20 (30%), and 2/20 (10%) cats, respectively. Mirtazapine-induced adverse events (AEs) occurred in 4/20 (20%) cats and did not require mirtazapine discontinuation. Substantial weight loss was not encountered, suggesting that patients had an adequate food intake after chemotherapy administration. Transdermal mirtazapine ointment was considered safe and well tolerated.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 149
Author(s):  
Haibo Fu ◽  
Wenjing Li

The division of hard and soft feces is an effective digestion strategy in the order Lagomorpha. Although previous studies have reported that hard and soft feces differ in morphology and component, the discrepancy in the microbiome remains unclear. This study explored the microbiomes of hard and soft feces in plateau pikas by sequencing the V3 and V4 regions of 16S rDNA. We found that hard feces harbored higher Firmicutes, while soft feces harbored higher Akkermansia. Increased rare bacterial taxa were observed in hard feces compared with soft feces. Moreover, hard and soft feces displayed a greater difference in terms of core operational taxonomy units (OTUs) compared to the total OTUs. The soft feces showed enhancements in all predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functions, indicating an advancing microbial metabolism compared to hard feces. The significantly upregulated pathways in soft feces were mainly enriched in metabolism of energy and carbohydrate, glycan biosynthesis, cofactors and vitamins, and amino acids—all of which are associated with increased contents of microbial proteins, vitamins, and short-chain fatty acids. Our study reports, for the first time, the differential microbiomes between hard and soft feces of pikas and provides direction for the future studies on cecotrophy.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 145
Author(s):  
Małgorzata Gieryńska ◽  
Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska ◽  
Justyna Struzik ◽  
Matylda Barbara Mielcarska ◽  
Karolina Paulina Gregorczyk-Zboroch

The gastrointestinal tract, which is constantly exposed to a multitude of stimuli, is considered responsible for maintaining the homeostasis of the host. It is inhabited by billions of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which form a mutualistic relationship with the host. Although the microbiota is generally recognized as beneficial, at the same time, together with pathogens, they are a permanent threat to the host. Various populations of epithelial cells provide the first line of chemical and physical defense against external factors acting as the interface between luminal microorganisms and immunocompetent cells in lamina propria. In this review, we focus on some essential, innate mechanisms protecting mucosal integrity, thus responsible for maintaining intestine homeostasis. The characteristics of decisive cell populations involved in maintaining the barrier arrangement, based on mucus secretion, formation of intercellular junctions as well as production of antimicrobial peptides, responsible for shaping the gut microbiota, are presented. We emphasize the importance of cross-talk between gut microbiota and epithelial cells as a factor vital for the maintenance of the homeostasis of the GI tract. Finally, we discuss how the imbalance of these regulations leads to the compromised barrier integrity and dysbiosis considered to contribute to inflammatory disorders and metabolic diseases.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 148
Author(s):  
Watcharaporn Thapana ◽  
Nattakan Ariyaraphong ◽  
Parinya Wongtienchai ◽  
Nararat Laopichienpong ◽  
Worapong Singchat ◽  
...  

Duplicate control regions (CRs) have been observed in the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of most varanids. Duplicate CRs have evolved in either concerted or independent evolution in vertebrates, but whether an evolutionary pattern exists in varanids remains unknown. Therefore, we conducted this study to analyze the evolutionary patterns and phylogenetic utilities of duplicate CRs in 72 individuals of Varanus salvator macromaculatus and other varanids. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic relationships revealed that divergence between orthologous copies from different individuals was lower than in paralogous copies from the same individual, suggesting an independent evolution of the two CRs. Distinct trees and recombination testing derived from CR1 and CR2 suggested that recombination events occurred between CRs during the evolutionary process. A comparison of substitution saturation showed the potential of CR2 as a phylogenetic marker. By contrast, duplicate CRs of the four examined varanids had similar sequences within species, suggesting typical characteristics of concerted evolution. The results provide a better understanding of the molecular evolutionary processes related to the mitogenomes of the varanid lineage.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 144
Author(s):  
Laura Lorenzo-Rebenaque ◽  
Danish J. Malik ◽  
Pablo Catalá-Gregori ◽  
Clara Marin ◽  
Sandra Sevilla-Navarro

Bacteriophage therapy is being considered as a promising tool to control Salmonella in poultry. Nevertheless, changes in gastrointestinal tract environmental conditions throughout the production cycle could compromise the efficacy of phages administered orally. The main objectives of this study were to assess the optimal timing of the phage administration over a 42-day production cycle and to compare microencapsulated and non-encapsulated phages and the spatial and temporal dynamics of the phage delivery along the gastrointestinal tract. Phage FGS011 was encapsulated in the pH-responsive polymer Eudragit® L100 using the process of spray drying. At different weeks of the chicken rearing period, 15 broilers were divided into three groups. Over a period of 24 h, group 1 received non-encapsulated phages (delivered through drinking water), group 2 received microencapsulated phages (incorporated in animal feed), and group 3 did not receive any phages. Microencapsulation was shown to enable efficient delivery of the bacteriophages to the animal gut and cecum throughout the animal rearing period. During the six weeks of application, the crop displayed the highest phage concentration for both phage delivery methods. The L100 based encapsulation offered significant protection to the phages from the harsh environmental conditions in the PV-Gizzard (not seen with phages administered in drinking water) which may help in the delivery of high phage doses to the cecum. Future Salmonella challenge studies are necessary to demonstrate the benefits of microencapsulation of phages using L100 formulation on phage therapy in field studies during the rearing period.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 150
Author(s):  
Isaac Hyeladi Malgwi ◽  
Veronika Halas ◽  
Petra Grünvald ◽  
Stefano Schiavon ◽  
Ildikó Jócsák

Fat metabolism and intramuscular fat (IMF) are qualitative traits in pigs whose development are influenced by several genes and metabolic pathways. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics offer prospects in estimating nutrients required by a pig. Application of these emerging fields in nutritional science provides an opportunity for matching nutrients based on the genetic make-up of the pig for trait improvements. Today, integration of high throughput “omics” technologies into nutritional genomic research has revealed many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the mutation(s) of key genes directly or indirectly involved in fat metabolism and IMF deposition in pigs. Nutrient–gene interaction and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in fatty acid synthesis and marbling in pigs is difficult to unravel. While existing knowledge on QTLs and SNPs of genes related to fat metabolism and IMF development is yet to be harmonized, the scientific explanations behind the nature of the existing correlation between the nutrients, the genes and the environment remain unclear, being inconclusive or lacking precision. This paper aimed to: (1) discuss nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and epigenetic mechanisms controlling fat metabolism and IMF accretion in pigs; (2) highlight the potentials of these concepts in pig nutritional programming and research.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 151
Author(s):  
Tamzin Furtado ◽  
Mollie King ◽  
Elizabeth Perkins ◽  
Catherine McGowan ◽  
Samantha Chubbock ◽  
...  

Equestrian grazing management is a poorly researched area, despite potentially significant environmental impacts. This study explored keepers’ use of alternative grazing systems in the care of UK horses, donkeys and mules through an internet survey. The survey was available during the summer of 2020 and comprised closed and open questions, which were analysed with descriptive statistics and iterative thematic analysis, respectively. A total of 758 responses was incorporated into the analysis; the most popular system used were tracks (56.5%), Equicentral (19%), “other” (e.g., non-grass turnout) (12.5%), rewilding (7.5%) and turnout on either moorland (0.7%) or woodland (2.5%). The thematic analysis highlighted that equid keepers across the systems were highly engaged in exploring sustainable practices. Their approaches varied according to each system, yet all aimed to fulfil practices in three major categories, i.e., supporting diverse plant life (usually through restricting equid access to certain areas), supporting wildlife (through the creation of biodiverse environments) and sustainably managing droppings and helminths. Additionally, proponents of the Equicentral systems declared to be aiming to support soil health. These data provide a promising insight into equid keepers’ behaviour and attitudes to sustainability.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 152
Author(s):  
Madison P. Wagoner ◽  
Marc R. Presume ◽  
Moses E. Chilenje ◽  
Gerardo A. Abascal-Ponciano ◽  
Jorge L. Sandoval ◽  
...  

Poultry co-product chicken frames (CF) and wooden breast (WB) along with ingredient technology use may bring enhanced value to the pet food industry. Therefore, the current study focused on evaluating CF and WB combinations along with sodium alginate and encapsulated calcium lactate pentahydrate (ALGIN) inclusion within a fresh pet food formulation under simulated shelf-life conditions. Fresh chicken frames (CF) and boneless-skinless wooden breast (WB) were ground and allocated randomly to one of ten treatment combinations with either 0.5 or 1.0% added ALGIN. Ground treatments were placed into a form and fill vacuum package and stored using a reach-in refrigerated case for 21 days. Packages were evaluated for instrumental surface color, lipid oxidation, water activity, and pH on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of the display. Packages of pet food were lighter, less red, and more yellow (p < 0.05) with increasing percentages of CF regardless of ALGIN inclusion, whereas pH was greater (p < 0.05) and lipid oxidation was less (p < 0.05) with increasing percentage of WB. Water activity increased (p < 0.05) when WB and ALGIN inclusion increased. The current results suggest that the use of ALGIN in a poultry co-product pet food formulation can improve shelf-life characteristics such as surface color and lipid oxidation in fresh pet food.


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