Grapevine virus L (GVL) is a recently described vitivirus (family Betaflexiviridae) with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. It has so far been reported from China, Croatia, New-Zealand, the United States and Tunisia (Debat et al. 2019; Diaz-Lara et al. 2019; Alabi et al. 2020; Ben Amar et al. 2020). It has significant genetic variability (up to 26% of nucleotide divergence between isolates) and the existence of four phylogroups has been proposed (Alabi et al. 2020). In the frame of a project investigating the possible links between grapevine trunk diseases and grapevine virome, viral high throughput sequencing (HTS)-based testing was performed on symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines collected in July 2019 in vineyards of four areas in France (Bourgogne, Charentes, Gard, Gironde) corresponding to five cultivars of Vitis vinifera (Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Sauvignon, Ugni blanc). Total RNAs were purified from powder of 105 trunk wood samples using the Spectrum™ Plant Total RNA Kit (Sigma-Aldrich, Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, France) and RNA-seq libraries were prepared using Zymo-Seq RiboFree Total RNA Library Prep Kit (Ozyme, Saint Cyr l’Ecole, France). HTS was performed on a S4 lane of Illumina NovaSeq 6000 using a paired-end read length of 2x150 bp. The trimmed sequence reads obtained from Chardonnay plants CH30-75M (99.9 M) and CH37-19S (114 M) from a vineyard in Gard were analyzed using CLC Genomics Workbench v21 (Qiagen, Courtaboeuf, France) and revealed complex mixed infections. Besides contigs representing a complete GVL genome (average scaffold coverage: 6,197x and 2,970x, respectively), contigs from grapevine rupestris stem pitting virus (1,697x ; 1,124x), grapevine virus A (82x ; 95x), grapevine pinot gris virus (1,475x ; 866x), grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (5,122x ; 1,042x), hop stunt viroid (13,783x ; 29,514x) and grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (690x ; 1158x) were also identified. Plant CH37-19S was also co-infected by grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus (164x). The GVL contigs integrated respectively 320,000 and 152,000 reads (corresponding to 0.32% and 0.11% of filtered/trimmed reads, respectively). The GVL genomic sequences from each sample (7,616 nt) have been deposited in GenBank (Accession nos. OK042110 and OK042111, respectively). The two contigs are nearly identical (99.9% nt identity) and share respectively 97.5% and 95.9% with GVL-KA from the USA (MH643739) and GVL-RS from China (MH248020), the closest isolates present in GenBank. To confirm the presence of GVL, the original grapevines were resampled in the field and total RNAs were extracted as described above from cambial scrappings and leaves. Total RNAs were used for RT-PCR tests using primers targeting a 279-bp fragment corresponding to the 3’ end of the coat protein gene and part of the nucleic acid binding protein gene (Debat et al. 2019). The Sanger-derived sequences from the amplicons shared 100% nt identities with the corresponding sequences of the HTS assembled genomes, confirming the presence of GVL in both tissues of both grapevine samples. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of the occurrence of GVL in vineyards in France. Given the complex mixed infection present in the two analyzed grapevines, no conclusions can be drawn on the pathogenicity of GVL. Further efforts are needed to better understand GVL distribution and its potential pathogenicity to grapevine. References Alabi, O J., et al. 2020. Arch. of Virol. 165:1905-1909. Ben Amar, A., et al. 2020. Plant disease 104:3274. Debat, H., et al. 2019. Eur J Plant Pathol. 155:319. Diaz-Lara, A., et al. 2019. Arch. of Virol. 164:2573. Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to the “Plan National Dépérissement du Vignoble” (Mycovir project) for the financial support
Although genetic variations rs780094 and rs1260326 of the glucokinase
regulatory protein gene (GCKR) could be associated with lipid profile
imbalance, their influence on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) risk has not yet
been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of
GCKR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs780094 and rs1260326 on lipid
profile parameters in patients with AIS, and to evaluate the association of
these SNPs with the risk of AIS. In a casecontrol study, a total of 148
subjects were screened for GCKR rs780094 and rs1260326 SNPs using the
polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism
(PCR-RFLP) method. The lipid profile was determined based on serum total
cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. The
frequencies of the minor rs780094T allele and the minor rs1260326T allele
were significantly lower in AIS patients compared to controls. The
rs780094TT genotype and the rs1260326TT genotype were associated with
decreased risk of AIS compared to wildtype carriers. In conclusion, this is
the first study implying that decreased risk of AIS in rs780094 and
rs1260326 homozygous minor allele carriers is not caused by dyslipidemia,
but possibly by the lack of coagulation factor glycosylation.
The SYG1, PHO81, and XPR1 (SPX) domain is named after the suppressor of yeast gpa1 (Syg1), yeast phosphatase (Pho81) and the human Xenotropic and Polytrophic Retrovirus receptor1 (XPR1). SPX-domain-containing proteins play pivotal roles in maintaining phosphate ions (Pi) homeostasis in plant. This study was to genome-wide identification and analysis of Solanum lycopersicum SPX-domain-containing protein gene family. The Solanum lycopersicum genome contains 19 SPX-domain-containing protein genes. These SPX-domain-containing protein genes were located in seven of the 12 chromosomes. According to the different conserved domains, the proteins encoded by those genes could be divided into four SPX-domain-containing protein families, which included SPX Family, SPX-ERD1/XPR1/SYG1(SPX-EXS) Family, SPX-Major Facilitator Superfamily (SPX-MFS) Family and SPX-Really Interesting New Gene (SPX-RING) Family. Phylogenetic analysis of SPX-domain-containing protein genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, Solanum tuberosum, Capsicum annuum and Solanum lycopersicum classified these genes into eight clades. Expression profiles derived from transcriptome (RNA-seq) data analysis showed 19 SPX-domain-containing protein genes displayed various expression patterns. SPX-domain-containing protein may play different roles in phosphate nutrition of Solanum lycopersicum different tissues and development stages. And, this study can provide the selection of candidate genes for functional research and genome editing in Solanum lycopersicum phosphate ions (Pi) nutrition.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an important pathogen in the swine industry, is a genetically highly diverse RNA virus. However, the phylogenetic and genomic recombination properties of this virus are not yet fully understood. In this study, we performed an integrated analysis of all available whole-genome sequences of type 2 PRRSV (n = 901) to reveal its evolutionary dynamics. The results showed that there were three distinct phylogenetic lineages of PRRSV in their distribution patterns. We identified that sublineage 2.7 (L2.7), associated with a NADC30 cluster, had the highest substitution rate and higher viral genetic diversity, and inter-lineage recombination is observed more frequently in L2.7 PRRSV compared to other sublineages. Most inter-lineage recombination events detected are observed between L2.7 PRRSVs (as major parents) and L3.4 (a JXA1-R-related cluster)/L3.7 (a WUH3-related cluster) PRRSVs (as minor parents). Moreover, the recombination hotspots are located in the structural protein gene ORF2 and ORF4, or in the non-structural protein gene nsp7. In addition, a GM2-related cluster, L3.2, shows inconsistent recombination modes compared to those of L2.7, suggesting that it may have undergone extensive and unique recombination in their evolutionary history. We also identified several amino acids under positive selection in GP2, GP4 and GP5, the major glycoproteins of PRRSV, showing the driving force behind adaptive evolution. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the evolutionary dynamics of PPRSV that contribute to our understanding of the critical factors involved in its evolution and guide future efforts to develop effective preventive measures against PRRSV.
Background & Aims: One of the organ-specific functions of the liver is the excretion of bilirubin into the bile. Membrane transport of bilirubin from the blood to the liver is not only an orphan function, as there is no link to the protein/gene entities that carry it out, but also a poorly characterised function. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacology of bilirubin uptake in the liver of the female Wistar rat to improve basic knowledge in this neglected area of liver physiology.Methods: We treated isolated, perfused rat livers with repeated single-pass, albumin-free bilirubin boli. We monitored both bilirubin and bilirubin glucuronide in perfusion effluent with a biofluorometric assay. We tested the ability of nine molecules known to be substrates or inhibitors of sinusoidal membrane transporters to inhibit the hepatic uptake of bilirubin.Results: We found that cyanidin 3-glucoside and malvidin 3-glucoside are the only molecules that inhibit bilirubin uptake. These dietary anthocyanins resemble bromosulfophthalein (BSP), a substrate of several sinusoidal membrane transporters. The SLCO-specific substrates estradiol-17 beta-glucuronide, pravastatin, and taurocholate inhibited only bilirubin glucuronide uptake. Cyanidin 3-glucoside and taurocholate acted at physiological concentrations. The SLC22-specific substrates indomethacin and ketoprofen were inactive. We demonstrated the existence of a bilirubin glucuronide transporter that is inhibited by bilirubin, a fact reported only once in the literature.Conclusions: Data indicate that bilirubin and bilirubin glucuronide are transported into the liver via pharmacologically distinct membrane transport pathways. Some dietary anthocyanins may physiologically modulate the uptake of bilirubin into the liver.
Bacteriophages infecting Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, have been proven to be effective for the prevention and control of this disease. However, the occurrence of bacteriophage-resistant bacteria is one of hurdles in phage biocontrol and the understanding of phage resistance in this bacterium is an essential step. In this study, we aim to investigate possible phage resistance of A. citrulli and relationship between phage resistance and pathogenicity, and to isolate and characterize the genes involved in these phenomena. A phage-resistant and less-virulent mutant named as AC-17-G1 was isolated among 3,264 A. citrulli Tn5 mutants through serial spot assays and plaque assays followed by pathogenicity test using seed coating method. The mutant has the integrated Tn5 in the middle of a cupin protein gene. This mutant recovered its pathogenicity and phage sensitivity by complementation with corresponding wild-type gene. Site-directed mutation of this gene from wild-type by CRISPR/Cas9 system resulted in the loss of pathogenicity and acquisition of phage resistance. The growth of AC-17-G1 in King’s B medium was much less than the wild-type, but the growth turned into normal in the medium supplemented with D-mannose 6-phosphate or D-fructose 6-phosphate indicating the cupin protein functions as a phosphomannos isomerase. Sodium dodecyl sulfa analysis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from the mutant was smaller than that from wild-type. All these data suggest that the cupin protein is a phosphomannos isomerase involved in LPS synthesis, and LPS is an important determinant of pathogenicity and phage susceptibility of A. citrulli.