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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Yao Peng ◽  
Hui Wang ◽  
Qi Huang ◽  
Jingjing Wu ◽  
Mingjun Zhang

Abstract Background Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and can affect a variety of physiological processes. Recent studies have shown that immune-related lncRNAs play an important role in the tumour immune microenvironment and may have potential application value in the treatment and prognosis prediction of tumour patients. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is characterized by a high incidence and poor prognosis. However, there are few studies on immune-related lncRNAs in EOC. In this study, we focused on immune-related lncRNAs associated with survival in EOC. Methods We downloaded mRNA data for EOC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and mRNA data for normal ovarian tissue from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database and identified differentially expressed genes through differential expression analysis. Immune-related lncRNAs were obtained through intersection and coexpression analysis of differential genes and immune-related genes from the Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort). Samples in the TCGA EOC cohort were randomly divided into a training set, validation set and combination set. In the training set, Cox regression analysis and LASSO regression were performed to construct an immune-related lncRNA signature. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, time-dependent ROC curve analysis, Cox regression analysis and principal component analysis were performed for verification in the training set, validation set and combination set. Further studies of pathways and immune cell infiltration were conducted through Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and the Timer data portal. Results An immune-related lncRNA signature was identified in EOC, which was composed of six immune-related lncRNAs (KRT7-AS, USP30-AS1, AC011445.1, AP005205.2, DNM3OS and AC027348.1). The signature was used to divide patients into high-risk and low-risk groups. The overall survival of the high-risk group was lower than that of the low-risk group and was verified to be robust in both the validation set and the combination set. The signature was confirmed to be an independent prognostic biomarker. Principal component analysis showed the different distribution patterns of high-risk and low-risk groups. This signature may be related to immune cell infiltration (mainly macrophages) and differential expression of immune checkpoint-related molecules (PD-1, PDL1, etc.). Conclusions We identified and established a prognostic signature of immune-related lncRNAs in EOC, which will be of great value in predicting the prognosis of clinical patients and may provide a new perspective for immunological research and individualized treatment in EOC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jinhui Liu ◽  
Guoliang Cui ◽  
Shuning Shen ◽  
Feng Gao ◽  
Hongjun Zhu ◽  

BackgroundsEpithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a sequential process where tumor cells develop from the epithelial state to the mesenchymal state. EMT contributes to various tumor functions including initiation, propagating potential, and resistance to therapy, thus affecting the survival time of patients. The aim of this research is to set up an EMT-related prognostic signature for endometrial cancer (EC).MethodsEMT-related gene (ERG) expression and clinical data were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The entire set was randomly divided into two sets, one for contributing the risk model (risk score) and the other for validating. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were applied to the training set to select the prognostic ERGs. The expression of 10 ERGs was confirmed by qRT-PCR in clinical samples. Then, we developed a nomogram predicting 1-/3-/5-year survival possibility combining the risk score and clinical factors. The entire set was stratified into the high- and low-risk groups, which was used to analyze the immune infiltrating, tumorigenesis pathways, and response to drugs.ResultsA total of 220 genes were screened out from 1,316 ERGs for their differential expression in tumor versus normal. Next, 10 genes were found to be associated with overall survival (OS) in EC, and the expression was validated by qRT-PCR using clinical samples, so we constructed a 10-ERG-based risk score to distinguish high-/low-risk patients and a nomogram to predict survival rate. The calibration plots proved the predictive value of our model. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) discovered that in the low-risk group, immune-related pathways were enriched; in the high-risk group, tumorigenesis pathways were enriched. The low-risk group showed more immune activities, higher tumor mutational burden (TMB), and higher CTAL4/PD1 expression, which was in line with a better response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nevertheless, response to chemotherapeutic drugs turned out better in the high-risk group. The high-risk group had higher N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA expression, microsatellite instability level, and stemness indices.ConclusionWe constructed the ERG-related signature model to predict the prognosis of EC patients. What is more, it might offer a reference for predicting individualized response to immune checkpoint inhibitors and chemotherapeutic drugs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Hay V. Duong ◽  
Thanh C. Nguyen ◽  
Xuan T. Nguyen ◽  
Minh Q. Nguyen ◽  
Phuoc H. Nguyen ◽  

The presence of pesticide residues was investigated in the organic rice production model in An Giang province, Vietnam. A total number of sixteen pesticide residues was been recorded during the investigation. Based on their contamination rate, they are classified as follows. The high-risk group includes tricyclazole (80%). The medium-risk group includes chlorpyrifos (47%), isoprothiolane (47%), difenoconazole (40%), propiconazole (40%), hexaconazole (40%), chlorfenapyr (33%), azoxystrobin (20%), and cypermethrin (20%). The low-risk group includes metalaxyl & metalaxyl-M, paclobutazol, niclosamide, chlorfenson, fipronil, fipronil-desulfinyl, and fenoxanil, which were detected with a contamination rate of 7%. There were seven insecticides, seven fungicides, one snail killer, and one growth regulator.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 404
Yuri Belotti ◽  
Elaine Hsuen Lim ◽  
Chwee Teck Lim

Ovarian cancer is the eighth global leading cause of cancer-related death among women. The most common form is the high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). No further improvements in the 5-year overall survival have been seen over the last 40 years since the adoption of platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy. Hence, a better understanding of the mechanisms governing this aggressive phenotype would help identify better therapeutic strategies. Recent research linked onset, progression, and response to treatment with dysregulated components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in many types of cancer. In this study, using bioinformatic approaches, we identified a 19-gene TME-related HGSOC prognostic genetic panel (19 prognostic genes (PLXNB2, HMCN2, NDNF, NTN1, TGFBI, CHAD, CLEC5A, PLXNA1, CST9, LOXL4, MMP17, PI3, PRSS1, SERPINA10, TLL1, CBLN2, IL26, NRG4, and WNT9A) by assessing the RNA sequencing data of 342 tumors available in the TCGA database. Using machine learning, we found that specific patterns of infiltrating immune cells characterized each risk group. Furthermore, we demonstrated the predictive potential of our risk score across different platforms and its improved prognostic performance compared with other gene panels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Su Wang ◽  
Zhen Xie ◽  
Zenghong Wu

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common and lethal subtype of lung cancer. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of regulated cell death, has emerged as a target in cancer therapy. However, the prognostic value of ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs)x in LUAD remains to be explored.Methods: In this study, we used RNA sequencing data and relevant clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset to construct and validate a prognostic FRG signature for overall survival (OS) in LUAD patients and defined potential biomarkers for ferroptosis-related tumor therapy.Results: A total of 86 differentially expressed FRGs were identified from LUAD tumor tissues versus normal tissues, of which 15 FRGs were significantly associated with OS in the survival analysis. Through the LASSO Cox regression analysis, a prognostic signature including 11 FRGs was established to predict OS in the TCGA tumor cohort. Based on the median value of risk scores calculated according to the signature, patients were divided into high-risk and low-risk groups. Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that the high-risk group had a poorer OS than the low-risk group. The area under the curve of this signature was 0.74 in the TCGA tumor set, showing good discrimination. In the GEO validation set, the prognostic signature also had good predictive performance. Functional enrichment analysis showed that some immune-associated gene sets were significantly differently enriched in two risk groups.Conclusion: Our study unearthed a novel ferroptosis-related gene signature for predicting the prognosis of LUAD, and the signature may provide useful prognostic biomarkers and potential treatment targets.

2022 ◽  
Yujian Xu ◽  
Youbai Chen ◽  
Zehao Niu ◽  
Zheng Yang ◽  
Jiahua Xing ◽  

Abstract Ferroptosis-related lncRNAs are promising biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of many cancers. However, a ferroptosis-related signature to predict the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has not been identified. The purpose of our study was to construct a ferroptosis-related lncRNA signature to predict prognosis and immunotherapy efficacy in CM. Ferroptosis-related differentially expressed genes (FDEGs) and lncRNAs (FDELs) were identified using TCGA, GTEx, and FerrDb datasets. We performed Cox and LASSO regressions to identify key FDELs, and constructed a risk score to stratify patients into high- and low-risk groups. A nomogram was developed for clinical use. We performed gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) to identify significantly enriched pathways. Differences in the tumor microenvironment (TME) between the 2 groups were assessed using 7 algorithms. To predict the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), we analyzed the association between PD1 and CTLA4 expression and the risk score. Finally, differences in Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) and molecular drugs Sensitivity between the 2 groups were performed. Here, we identified 5 lncRNAs (AATBC, AC145423.2, LINC01871, AC125807.2, and AC245041.1) to construct the risk score. The AUC of the lncRNA signature was 0.743 in the training cohort and was validated in the testing and entire cohorts. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that the high-risk group had poorer prognosis. Multivariate Cox regression showed that the lncRNA signature was an independent predictor of OS with higher accuracy than traditional clinicopathological features. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival probabilities for CM patients were 92.7%, 57.2%, and 40.2% with an AUC of 0.804, indicating a good accuracy and reliability of the nomogram. GSEA showed that the high-risk group had lower ferroptosis and immune response. TME analyses confirmed that the high-risk group had lower immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD8+ T cells, CD4+ memory-activated T cells, and M1 macrophages) and lower immune functions (e.g., immune checkpoint activation). Low-risk patients whose disease expressed PD1 or CTLA4 were likely to respond better to ICIs. The analysis demonstrated that the TMB had significantly difference between low- and high- risk groups. Chemotherapy drugs, such as sorafenib, Imatinib, ABT.888 (Veliparib), Docetaxel, and Paclitaxel showed Significant differences in the estimated IC50 between the two risk groups. Overall, our novel ferroptosis-related lncRNA signature was able to accurately predict the prognosis and ICI outcomes of CM patients. These ferroptosis-related lncRNAs might be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CM.

2022 ◽  
Thongher Lia ◽  
Yanxiang Shao ◽  
Parbatraj Regmi ◽  
Xiang Li

Bladder cancer is one of the highly heterogeneous disorders accompanied by a poor prognosis. This study aimed to construct a model based on pyroptosis‑related lncRNA to evaluate the potential prognostic application in bladder cancer. The mRNA expression profiles of bladder cancer patients and corresponding clinical data were downloaded from the public database from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Pyroptosis‑related lncRNAs were identified by utilizing a co-expression network of Pyroptosis‑related genes and lncRNAs. The lncRNA was further screened by univariate Cox regression analysis. Finally, 8 pyroptosis-related lncRNA markers were established using Lasso regression and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Patients were separated into high and low-risk groups based on the performance value of the median risk score. Patients in the high-risk group had significantly poorer overall survival (OS) than those in the low-risk group (p < 0.001), and In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the risk score was an independent predictive factor of OS ( HR>1, P<0.01). The area under the curve (AUC) of the 3- and 5-year OS in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were 0.742 and 0.739 respectively. In conclusion, these 8 pyroptosis-related lncRNA and their markers may be potential molecular markers and therapeutic targets for bladder cancer patients.

2022 ◽  
Piao Shen ◽  
Yuzhen Zheng ◽  
Siyu Zhu ◽  
Xingping Yang ◽  
Jian Tan ◽  

Abstract Background: Primary pulmonary sarcoma (PPS) accounts for less than 1.1% of all pulmonary tumors. Few data outcomes are reported. This study aims to clarify the predictive value of clinicopathologic features on the overall survival (OS) of PPS patients.Methods: Patients with primary pulmonary sarcoma (PPS) were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (from 2000 to 2015) and divided randomly into training and validation cohorts at a ratio of 1:1. Univariate Cox analysis and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) were implemented to identify prognostic factors related to overall survival of primary pulmonary sarcoma patients. Then, we performed multivariate Cox regression to establish a prognostic factors signature. The Kaplan- Meier (K-M) survival curves and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to estimate the prognostic power of the signature. In addition, multivariate Cox regression screened out independent prognostic factors and constructed a nomogram. Results: PPS patients with training group were divided into low- and high-risk group based on risk score, and high-risk group had a shorter survival time. The validation group got the same result. (P<0.001). On multivariate analysis of the training cohort, independent factors for survival were marriage, age, sex, grade, operation, metastasis and tumor size, which were all selected into the nomogram. The calibration curve and ROC plots for probability of 3-year and 5-year survival were in accord with prediction by nomogram and actual observation. And the C-index of the nomogram for predicting survival was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.80, P<0.05), which was statistically significant. Conclusion: We constructed a risk prognosis model based on PPS patients from SEER database. In addition, the construction of nomogram provides one more idea for clinical treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Xiaoting Zhang ◽  
Yue Su ◽  
Xian Fu ◽  
Jing Xiao ◽  
Guicheng Qin ◽  

Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is the most common type of lung cancer accounting for 40% to 51%. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play a significant role in the invasion, migration, and proliferation of lung cancer tissue cells. However, systematic identification of lncRNA signatures and evaluation of the prognostic value for LUSC are still an urgent problem. In this work, LUSC RNA-seq data were collected from TCGA database, and the limma R package was used to screen differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs). In total, 216 DElncRNAs were identified between the LUSC and normal samples. lncRNAs associated with prognosis were calculated using univariate Cox regression analysis. The overall survival (OS) prognostic model containing 10 lncRNAs and the disease-free survival (DFS) prognostic model consisting of 11 lncRNAs were constructed using a machine learning-based algorithm, systematic LASSO-Cox regression analysis. We found that the survival rate of samples in the high-risk group was lower than that in the low-risk group. Results of ROC curves showed that both the OS and DFS risk score had better prognostic effects than the clinical characteristics, including age, stage, gender, and TNM. Two lncRNAs (LINC00519 and FAM83A-AS1) that were commonly identified as prognostic factors in both models could be further investigated for their clinical significance and therapeutic value. In conclusion, we constructed lncRNA prognostic models with considerable prognostic effect for both OS and DFS of LUSC.

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