health security
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Shruti Sunil Ajankar ◽  
Aditi Rajesh Nimodiya

Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the most important technologies in the world today. In the future, intelligent machines will replace or enhance human capabilities in many areas. Artificial Intelligence is impacting the future of virtually every industry and every human being. AI has acted as the main driver of emerging technologies like big data, robotics, and IoT, and it will continue to act as a technological innovator for the foreseeable future. AI is simply the study of how to make computer do things which at the moment people do the better. There are many ways to define AI, but one simple definition is “intelligence demonstrated by machines”. Primary goal of AI is to improve computer behaviour so that it can be called intelligent. AI is ubiquitous and is not only limited to computer science but has evolved to include other areas like health, security, education, music, art, and business application. This paper gives an overview of how the AI actually works, its scopes , the different applications of AI, its advantages and disadvantages and many more topics which will give a clear understanding inspite of the boundlessness of AI.

2022 ◽  
Monica-Laura Sorici (Zlati) ◽  
Veronica Grosu ◽  
Cristina-Gabriela Cosmulese ◽  
Marian Socoliuc ◽  

The regulation of the cryptocurrency market is becoming an increasingly debated topic in the context of the transition to the digital economy and the health security procedures adopted by the authorities in this period dominated by the pandemic and economic crisis. In this context, we propose a prospective analysis of the effects of legislative regulation and the shift to the cryptocurrency market as a unit supporting digitization. The methods and procedures used in the analysis aim to obtain the staging of the interaction between the accounting system and the cryptocurrency trading processes. Thus, we will address the issue of the digital economy and the effects produced by it, and the result of this approach will be to identify viable solutions that will prevent certain effects on financial reporting and limit tax evasion or other money laundering techniques as a result of the widespread transition to this trading system. The results obtained will be useful to economic decision-makers and tax authorities concerned with these aspects of economic development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-28
Sidney Kabinoff

During public health crises, the United States utilizes a statist approach for securing its population’s health, which places state structures at the center of a (mainly economic) health security. The fairness of this approach relies on a distribution of resources to “trickle down” from institutions to individuals. Yet, “fairness,” in this regard, is determined a priori, that is, without reference to specific individuals who are receiving resources of health. This ignores contextual needs that arise from the disproportionate damage that epidemics and pandemics have on vulnerable populations. A statist approach can make a more equitable impact on global society if it integrates care ethics into its distributive justice. In this paper, I demonstrate how an ethic of care can substantiate health security. First, I show how an ethic of care can be engaged anywhere embodiment is recognizable—not just in the one-on-one setting of the clinical encounter—but in the (inter)national contexts through which public health crises have a full effect on. Second, I provide a methodology for state institutions to recognize the social embodiment necessary to engage an ethic of care in these contexts, specifically engaging the social embodiment that manifests through the social activism of vulnerable populations during public health crises. Third, I demonstrate how the social embodiment that activism lives through forces an encounter with state institutions, mimicking in this manner a clinical encounter on a macrocosmic scale. Finally, I assign an ethic of care to this encounter, meshing caring values to the criteria of distribution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 80 (1) ◽  
Huan Liu ◽  
Tiantian Hu

Abstract Background Since the national long-term care (LTCI) policy pilot in 2016 of China, the LTCI policy has had significant impact on the residents in the pilot area. Methods From the perspective of medical expenses and health security equity, this study selects tracking survey data from the CHARLS database in 2013, 2015, and 2018 and empirically investigates the effect of LTCI policy pilot by using differences-in-differences method (DID). Moreover, this study measures the economic distribution and health equity of the treated and untreated groups using the concentration and Theil indices. Results The results showed that group heterogeneity of medical expenses and health level of elderly in the treatment group were narrowing. Moreover, the policy results showed that the LTCI policy pilot significantly affects the outpatient, hospital expenses, and length of stay of elders. Residence registration, income level, and basic medical insurance play a significant regulatory role. Additionally, LTCI policy pilot significantly improved the overall health of the elderly. Conclusions The measurement results of inequality show that the policy increases the income of low-income people, lowers the inequality level of outpatient and inpatient reimbursement, and reduces the concentration index of ADL disability and serious diseases. However, the inequality of serious diseases is becoming higher. Based on this, this paper provides several suggestions on optimizing the pilot policy of LTCI.

2022 ◽  
pp. 46-60
Misra Cagla Gul ◽  
Zehra Bilgen Susanli

The ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the ensuing public health policy measures to contain its spread have inevitably had profound effects on businesses throughout the world. While the pandemic has impacted every industry in all countries, hospitality is clearly the worst hit. This chapter explores the impact of the pandemic on the hospitality industry by focusing on accommodation and food service businesses in Turkey. By looking at government policies and changes in business activities in these sectors in response to the crisis, the authors discuss the measures policymakers and firms can take to mitigate the devastating impacts of the pandemic. Findings suggest that focusing on creating novel products and processes, collaboration and open innovation, informational and corporate advertising, as well as investment in quality and health security measures and trust building via communication are effective in moving forward with the new normal.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-15
Tamara Rađenović ◽  
Vladimir Radivojević ◽  
Bojan Krstić ◽  
Tanja Stanišić ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the insufficient capacities and capabilities of countries around the world to deal with global infectious diseases and stressed the need to improve the international health security frame-work. An efficient and comprehensive health system that is able to cope with public health emergencies is an essential prerequisite for strengthening health security. The paper analyzes the efficiency of health systems in the European Union (EU) countries and their responsiveness to the COVID-19 pandemic. The research covers 27 EU countries and it is based on the secondary data contained in the 2019 Global Health Security Index Re-port. The aim of the paper is to identify key determinants for improving the efficiency of health systems in the EU, as well as to examine the interdependence between health expenditures and the efficiency of health system in this sample of countries. The research is conducted through descriptive statistics and correlation and regression analysis. The conclusions can be useful for the EU policy makers in formulating a strategy to improve the efficiency of Member States’ health systems and preparedness for possible new pandemics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 (2) ◽  
pp. 577-587
P. Thirumoorthy ◽  
K. S. Bhuvaneshwari ◽  
C. Kamalanathan ◽  
P. Sunita ◽  
E. Prabhu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. e007407
Kari Pahlman ◽  
Anson Fehross ◽  
Greg J Fox ◽  
Diego S Silva

ObjectiveOwing to its potential human, social and economic costs, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is frequently referred to as a threat to health security. Simultaneously, health security and the preservation of antimicrobials are often described as a global public good. However, how the term ‘public good’ is used in the context of health security, and the values that underpin it, remains ambiguous. Policymaking is never value-free, and a better examination of such values is critical to understanding how issues such as AMR are problematised and how policy decisions are informed.DesignWe used McDougall’s version of critical interpretive synthesis to capture the recurring concepts and arguments within public policy, political science and applied ethics literature on AMR. Articles were analysed by identifying recurring ideas and developing themes across the literature.ResultsA total of 77 papers were included in our review. In the context of health security and AMR, the concept of ‘public good’ appears to be used interchangeably with ‘common good’, reflecting confusion, but sometimes meaningful differences, regarding how antimicrobials, as a good, are conceived. Main approaches to addressing AMR are statism, globalism and regionalism, which appeal to different values in guiding policymakers. Common justificatory values underpinning preservation of antimicrobials as a public good were prevention of harm, solidarity, justice and rights.ConclusionThe findings suggest that within the literature there is a lack of conceptual clarity as to whether antimicrobials constitute a public good or a common good. Moreover, the way in which antimicrobials are conceived and the approaches through which AMR as a threat to health security is addressed appear to be grounded in values that are often implicit. Being explicit about the values that underpin AMR and health security is not simply an intellectual exercise but has very real policy and programmatic implications.

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