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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 423
Raphaela Graessle ◽  
Carmen Stromberger ◽  
Max Heiland ◽  
Christian Doll ◽  
Veit M. Hofmann ◽  

Finding a cure may be less important than ensuring the quality of life in elderly patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The aim of this study was to determine predictors for adherence. Clinical and pathological data from patients ≥70 years with HNSCC (initial diagnoses 2004-2018) were investigated retrospectively. Evaluated clinical predictors included biological age (Charlson Comorbidity Index; CCI), patient health (Karnofsky Performance Status; KPS) and therapy data. A total of 1125 patients were included. The median age was 75 years, 33.1% reached CCI ≥6, and 53.7% reached KPS ≤ 70%. In total, 968 patients were adherent, whereas 157 were nonadherent. Nonadherent patients were significantly more often smokers (p = 0.003), frequent drinkers (p = 0.001), had a worse health status (p ≤ 0.001) and a lower biological age (p = 0.003), an advanced T classification and lymph node involvement or UICC stage (each p ≤ 0.001). Approximately 88.0% of the included patients received a curative treatment recommendation. A total of 6.9% discontinued the therapy, and 7.0% refused the therapy. With the increasing complexity of a recommended therapy, adherence decreased. The 5-year overall survival was significantly higher in adherent patients (45.1% versus 19.2%). In contrast to the chronological patient age, biological age is a significant predictor for adherence. The evaluated predictors for nonadherence need to be verified prospectively.

Liver Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Sabrina Welland ◽  
Catherine Leyh ◽  
Fabian Finkelmeier ◽  
André Jefremow ◽  
Kateryna Shmanko ◽  

Background Lenvatinib is approved as first-line treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of lenvatinib in Caucasian real-world patients is insufficiently defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lenvatinib in a multi-center cohort (ELEVATOR) from Germany and Austria. Methods A retrospective data analysis of 205 patients treated with first-line systemic lenvatinib at 14 different sites was conducted. Overall survival, progression free survival, overall response rate and adverse event rates were assessed and analyzed. Results Patients receiving lenvatinib in the real-world setting reached a median overall survival of 12.8 months, which was comparable to the results reported from the REFLECT study. Median overall survival (mOS) and progression free survival (mPFS) was superior in those patients who met the inclusion criteria of the REFLECT study compared to patients who failed to meet the inclusion criteria (mOS 15.6 vs 10.2 months, HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.81, p=0.002; mPFS 8.1 vs 4.8 months HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.91, p=0.0015). For patients with an impaired liver function according to the Albumin-Bilirubin (ALBI) grade, or reduced ECOG performance status ≥2, survival was significantly shorter compared to patients with sustained liver function (ALBI grade 1) and good performance status (ECOG performance status 0), respectively (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.07-2.66, p=0.023; HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.19-4.23, p=0.012). Additionally, macrovascular invasion (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.02-2.37, p=0.041) and an AFP ≥200 ng/mL (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03-2.34, p=0.034) were confirmed as independent negative prognostic factors in our cohort of patients with advanced HCC. Conclusion Overall, our data confirm the efficacy of lenvatinib as first-line treatment and did not reveal new or unexpected side effects in a large retrospective Caucasian real-world cohort, supporting the use of lenvatinib as meaningful alternative for patients that cannot be treated with IO-based combinations in first-line HCC.

Pip Griffiths ◽  
John Devin Peipert ◽  
Andrea Leith ◽  
Alex Rider ◽  
Lucy Morgan ◽  

Abstract Purpose With higher efficacy of cancer therapies, the numbers and types of side effects experienced by patients have also increased, evidencing a need for brief assessments of side effect bother. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) includes the item “I am bothered by side effects of treatment” (GP5). This study aimed to confirm GP5’s validity in a large, diverse, real-world patient sample. Methods Real-world data were drawn from 10 Adelphi Disease Specific Programmes (DSP™) conducted between 2015 and 2019 in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK and the USA, covering 10 cancer sites. We examined correlations between GP5 responses and varied measures of patient-reported global health and the number of side effects experienced. We explored whether more advanced patients and those with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status Rating (ECOG PSR) reported greater side effect bother. Finally, we conducted differential item functioning (DIF) assessment using the Mantel–Haenszel approach. Results The sample included 6755 advanced cancer patients. GP5 responses were distributed similarly across most cancer sites. A moderate, negative correlation (rpolyserial =  − 0.43) between GP5 responses and global health evidenced convergent validity. Known groups validity was evidenced by dichotomised distributions of GP5, showing expected results between cancer stage 2 vs. 3 and 4 and with ECOG PSR (p < 0.001). Little evidence of DIF was found. Conclusion GP5 exhibited evidence of validity across cancer sites and countries and appeared to measure the same construct across these countries. GP5 has significant promise as a summary indicator of side effect bother.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 337-349
Adrian J. M. Bailey ◽  
Aidan M. Kirkham ◽  
Madeline Monaghan ◽  
Risa Shorr ◽  
C. Arianne Buchan ◽  

The management of COVID-19 in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients represents a special challenge given the variable states of immune dysregulation and altered vaccine efficacy in this population. A systematic search (Ovid Medline and Embase on 1 June 2021) was needed to better understand the presenting features, prognostic factors, and treatment options. Of 897 records, 29 studies were identified in our search. Most studies reporting on adults and pediatric recipients described signs and symptoms that were typical of COVID-19. Overall, the mortality rates were high, with 21% of adults and 6% of pediatric HCT recipients succumbing to COVID-19. The factors reported to be associated with increased mortality included age (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.43, p = 0.02), ICU admission (HR = 4.42, 95% CI 2.25–8.65, p < 0.001 and HR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.22–4.20, p = 0.01 for allogeneic and autologous HCT recipients), and low platelet count (OR = 21.37, 95% CI 1.71–267.11, p = 0.01). Performance status was associated with decreased mortality (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74–0.93, p = 0.001). A broad range of treatments was described, although no controlled studies were identified. The risk of bias, using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale, was low. Patients undergoing HCT are at a high risk of severe morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. Controlled studies investigating potential treatments are required to determine the efficacy and safety in this population.

Carsten Nieder ◽  
Siv G. Aanes ◽  
Ellinor Haukland

Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate overall survival after systemic therapy, largely chemotherapy, in patients with small cell or non-small cell lung cancer and brain metastases. After completion of systemic therapy, some patients received planned brain irradiation, while others were followed. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results Thirty-eight patients were included (28 small cell, 20 followed with imaging). Six of these 20 patients (30%) received delayed radiotherapy during follow-up. Planned radiotherapy (n = 18, intention-to-treat) was associated with longer survival from diagnosis of brain metastases, median 10.8 versus 6.1 months, p = 0.025. Delayed radiotherapy still resulted in numerically better survival than no radiotherapy at all (median 8.8 versus 5.3 months, not significant). If calculated from the start of delayed radiotherapy, median survival was only 2.7 months. In a multivariable analysis, both Karnofsky performance status ≥ 70 (p = 0.03) and planned radiotherapy (p = 0.05) were associated with better survival. Conclusion In patients ineligible for targeted agents, planned radiotherapy in a modern treatment setting was associated with longer survival compared to no radiotherapy. Timing and type of radiotherapy in such patients should be evaluated in prospective trials to identify patients who might not need planned radiotherapy.

2022 ◽  
Alina Krause ◽  
Gertraud Stocker ◽  
Ines Gockel ◽  
Daniel Seehofer ◽  
Albrecht Hoffmann ◽  

Abstract Purpose: Although participation in multidisciplinary tumor boards (MTBs) is an obligatory quality criterion for certification, there is scarce evidence, whether MTB recommendations are consistent with consensus guidelines and whether they are followed in clinical practice. Reasons of guideline and tumor board deviations are poorly understood so far. Methods: MTBs recommendations from the weekly MTB for gastrointestinal cancers at the University Cancer Center Leipzig/Germany (UCCL) in 2020 were analyzed for their adherence to therapy recommendations as stated in National German guidelines and implementation within an observation period of 3 months. To assess adherence, an objective classification system was developed assigning a degree of guideline and tumor board adherence to each MTB case. For cases with deviations, underlying causes and influencing factors were investigated and categorized. Results: 76% of MTBs were fully adherent to guidelines, with 16% showing deviations, mainly due to study inclusions and patient comorbidities. Guideline adherence in 8% of case discussions could not be determined, especially because there was no underlying guideline recommendation for the specific topic. Full implementation of the MTBs treatment recommendation occurred in 64% of all cases, while 21% showed deviations with primarily reasons of comorbidities and differing patient wishes. Significantly lower guideline and tumor board adherences were demonstrated in patients with reduced performance status (ECOG-PS ≥ 2) and for palliative intended therapy (p=.002/.007). Conclusion: The assessment of guideline deviations and adherence to MTB decisions by a systematic and objective quality assessment tool could become a meaningful quality criterion for cancer centers in Germany.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 328
Catherine Owusuaa ◽  
Simone A. Dijkland ◽  
Daan Nieboer ◽  
Agnes van der Heide ◽  
Carin C. D. van der Rijt

To timely initiate advance care planning in patients with advanced cancer, physicians should identify patients with limited life expectancy. We aimed to identify predictors of mortality. To identify the relevant literature, we searched Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, and PubMed databases between January 2000–April 2020. Identified studies were assessed on risk-of-bias with a modified QUIPS tool. The main outcomes were predictors and prediction models of mortality within a period of 3–24 months. We included predictors that were studied in ≥2 cancer types in a meta-analysis using a fixed or random-effects model and summarized the discriminative ability of models. We included 68 studies (ranging from 42 to 66,112 patients), of which 24 were low risk-of-bias, and 39 were included in the meta-analysis. Using a fixed-effects model, the predictors of mortality were: the surprise question, performance status, cognitive impairment, (sub)cutaneous metastases, body mass index, comorbidity, serum albumin, and hemoglobin. Using a random-effects model, predictors were: disease stage IV (hazard ratio [HR] 7.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.00–14.36), lung cancer (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.24–5.06), ECOG performance status 1+ (HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.44–2.86) and 2+ (HR 4.06; 95% CI 2.36–6.98), age (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05–1.38), male sex (HR 1.24; 95% CI 1.14–1.36), and Charlson comorbidity score 3+ (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.11–2.32). Thirteen studies reported on prediction models consisting of different sets of predictors with mostly moderate discriminative ability. To conclude, we identified reasonably accurate non-tumor specific predictors of mortality. Those predictors could guide in developing a more accurate prediction model and in selecting patients for advance care planning.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Verena Schlintl ◽  
Florian Huemer ◽  
Gabriel Rinnerthaler ◽  
Thomas Melchardt ◽  
Thomas Winder ◽  

Abstract Background Safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer could be demonstrated in predominantly Asian cohorts, whereas data in Western patients outside of clinical trials are vastly missing. Methods In this multi-institutional retrospective analysis conducted at nine oncologic centers in Austria, we tried to assess feasibility of checkpoint inhibitors in advanced gastric/GEJ cancer in a real-world Western cohort. Results In total, data from 50 patients with metastatic gastric/GEJ cancer who received nivolumab or pembrolizumab in a palliative setting between November 2015 and April 2020 have been evaluated. The median number of previous palliative therapy lines was two. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4–2.8) and 6.3 (95% CI: 3.3–9.3) months, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in median OS according to microsatellite or PD-L1 status. However, a trend towards prolonged PFS and OS for the microsatellite instability high subgroup could be observed. Patients with an ECOG Performance Status (PS) ≥ 2 displayed a significantly worse outcome than those with an ECOG PS ≤ 1 (p = .03). Only one patient discontinued immunotherapy due to treatment-related toxicity. Conclusions Our results support feasibility of nivolumab and pembrolizumab in pre-treated patients with metastatic gastric and GEJ cancer in a Western real-world cohort. Further phase II/III studies are needed to confirm clinical efficacy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
Denny Satria Utama ◽  
Eriza ◽  
Belly Sutopo Wijaya ◽  
Erial Bahar

Background. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common malignancy in head and neck in Indonesia with 19,943 new cases in 2020 resulting 13,399 deaths. Lymphocytes are cells that play a role in the anti-cancer immune response, especially CD-8 T-cells. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is chemotherapy given before radiotherapy that aims to kill primary tumors and micrometastasis tumors. This study aims to find out the relationship of CD-8 expression to treatment response in NPC undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy at Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Hospital Palembang. Methods. This study is an analytical observational research study on a retrospective cohort basis. Data collection from medical records using total sampling in 15 patients pilot study of NPC patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and conducted CD-8 examination at ORLHNS polyclinic Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Hospital Palembang from December 2018 to December 2019 that met the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Results. From 15 samples, the average CD-8 test result before neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 24.54 ng/μL and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 193.56 ng/μL. There was a tendency to increase the average CD-8 from before to after completion of neoadjuvan chemotherapy with a statistically significant difference of p =0.001. ROC analysis found CD-8 cut off points is 23.76 ng/μL with an area below the curve is 0.667. There were no significant relationships between CD-8 to performance status and treatment response with p values of 0.289 and 0.219, respectively.  Conclusions. There was a significant change between CD-8 before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with increased CD-8 tendencies and trends from before to after 6 series neoadjuvant chemotherapy with CD-8 cut off points is 23.76 ng/μL. In this study there has not been a significant relationships between CD-8 to performance status and treatment response in NPC patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

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