Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) are gel-like concentrated emulsions that have the potential to be an alternative to partially hydrogenated oil (PHO). In this study, egg yolk granules (EYGs), natural complexes of protein and lipid isolated from egg yolk, were used as an emulsifier to prepare Pickering HIPEs. Gel-like HIPEs with an oil phase volume fraction of 85% and with an emulsifier concentration of only 0.5% could be prepared by using EYGs as an emulsifier. The EYGs were able to form stable HIPEs at NaCl ionic strengths over 0.2 M and at pH over 5.0 with NaCl ionic strength of 0.3 M. The EYGs, which could stabilize HIPEs, were easily to adsorb and cover the oil-water interface to form emulsion droplets with small particle size. In addition, interacting EYGs in the aqueous phase formed a continuous network structure, and the oil droplets packed closely, exhibiting high elasticity and shear thinning behavior. Furthermore, the formed HIPEs had suitable storage stability with no significant changes in appearance and microstructure after storage for 60 days. This work can transform traditional oils from liquid-like to solid-like by using EYGs to enrich food processing diversity and improve the storage stability of oils while reducing the intake of PHO and providing a healthier diet for consumers.
Enhancing the quality retention of fresh noodles remains challenging. In this study, we investigated the effect of dough mixing with plasma-activated water (PAW) of different activation times on the storage stability and quality characteristics of fresh noodles. It was found that the total plate count in the fresh noodles prepared by PAW (PAWN) showed no obvious inhibition during storage at 25 °C, but could be significantly reduced at 4 °C as compared with the control. The decrease in L* value and pH of the PAWN was significantly retarded during storage, indicating an enhanced storage stability. The stability time of dough mixed with PAW could be significantly improved. PAW treatment decreased the viscosity properties and setback value of starch, while enhancing the interaction of water and non-water components in fresh noodles. In addition, dynamic polymerization and depolymerization of proteins were detected in Size-Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (SE-HPLC) profiles of PAWN. The hardness and adhesiveness of the cooked noodles decreased, while the springiness significantly increased. These results implied the potential of PAW in improving the storage stability and quality of fresh noodles.
In this work, the lactoferrin (LF) was glycosylated by dextran (molecular weight 10, 40, and 70 kDa, LF 10K, LF 40K, and LF 70K) via Maillard reaction as a stabilizer to establish zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles and encapsulate 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF). Three zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles (79.27–87.24 nm) with low turbidity (<0.220) and polydispersity index (PDI) (<0.230) were successfully established by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. Compared with zein/LF nanoparticles, zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles further increased stability to ionic strength (0–500 mM NaCl) at low pH conditions. Zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles had nanoscale spherical shape and glycosylated LF changed surface morphology of zein nanoparticles. Besides, encapsulated 7,8-DHF exhibited an amorphous state inside zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles. Most importantly, zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles had good water redispersibility, high encapsulation efficiency (above 98.50%), favorable storage stability, and bioaccessibility for 7,8-DHF, particularly LF 40K. Collectively, the above research provides a theoretical reference for the application of zein-based delivery systems.