Color Evolution
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2021 ◽  
pp. 131670
Xu Zhao ◽  
Fei He ◽  
Xin-Ke Zhang ◽  
Ying Shi ◽  
Chang-Qing Duan

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Judith Trunschke ◽  
Klaus Lunau ◽  
Graham H. Pyke ◽  
Zong-Xin Ren ◽  
Hong Wang

The evolution of floral traits in animal-pollinated plants involves the interaction between flowers as signal senders and pollinators as signal receivers. Flower colors are very diverse, effect pollinator attraction and flower foraging behavior, and are hypothesized to be shaped through pollinator-mediated selection. However, most of our current understanding of flower color evolution arises from variation between discrete color morphs and completed color shifts accompanying pollinator shifts, while evidence for pollinator-mediated selection on continuous variation in flower colors within populations is still scarce. In this review, we summarize experiments quantifying selection on continuous flower color variation in natural plant populations in the context of pollinator interactions. We found that evidence for significant pollinator-mediated selection is surprisingly limited among existing studies. We propose several possible explanations related to the complexity in the interaction between the colors of flowers and the sensory and cognitive abilities of pollinators as well as pollinator behavioral responses, on the one hand, and the distribution of variation in color phenotypes and fitness, on the other hand. We emphasize currently persisting weaknesses in experimental procedures, and provide some suggestions for how to improve methodology. In conclusion, we encourage future research to bring together plant and animal scientists to jointly forward our understanding of the mechanisms and circumstances of pollinator-mediated selection on flower color.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mar Sobral ◽  
Isabelle P. Neylan ◽  
Eduardo Narbona ◽  
Rodolfo Dirzo

Variation in flower color due to transgenerational plasticity could stem directly from abiotic or biotic environmental conditions. Finding a link between biotic ecological interactions across generations and plasticity in flower color would indicate that transgenerational effects of ecological interactions, such as herbivory, might be involved in flower color evolution. We conducted controlled experiments across four generations of wild radish (Raphanus sativus, Brassicaceae) plants to explore whether flower color is influenced by herbivory, and to determine whether flower color is associated with transgenerational chromatin modifications. We found transgenerational effects of herbivory on flower color, partly related to chromatin modifications. Given the presence of herbivory in plant populations worldwide, our results are of broad significance and contribute to our understanding of flower color evolution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 188 ◽  
pp. 109212
Tanlong Xue ◽  
Liqun Tang ◽  
Ruifen Tang ◽  
Yang Li ◽  
Jun Nie ◽  

2020 ◽  
Lucas C. Wheeler ◽  
Boswell A. Wing ◽  
Stacey D. Smith

Processes ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 8 (10) ◽  
pp. 1250
Rosario Sánchez-Gómez ◽  
Maria del Alamo-Sanza ◽  
Ana María Martínez-Gil ◽  
Ignacio Nevares

The micro-oxygenation (MOX) of aged wine in contact with pieces of wood is a technique widely used for aging wines as an alternative to barrels. The available range of passive MOX systems is very wide and offers a behavior closer to that of barrels because it uses materials with a similar permeability to oxygen. The aim of this work has been to age the same red wine for 6 months using the main passive MOX systems and compare them with the classic MOX in stainless steel tanks and with barrels as a reference, in order to evaluate phenolic composition and establish its influence. The quantity and the way in which oxygen is incorporated into wine have been found to determine its evolution and final properties. Wine from barrels could be distinguished throughout the aging period since a better level of individualized anthocyanins was maintained, whereas stainless steel + MOX and PMDS (polydimethylsiloxane) wines presented more bluish hues.

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