Habitat Restoration
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2022 ◽  
pp. 160-176
Author(s):  
Sophie Walker ◽  
Nathan Waltham ◽  
Christina Buelow ◽  
Jordan Iles

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Author(s):  
Aireona B. Raschke ◽  
Jeny Davis ◽  
Annia Quiroz

Land managers are currently faced with a nexus of challenges, both ecological and social, when trying to govern natural open spaces. While social media has led to many challenges for effective land management and governance, the technology has the potential to support key activities related to habitat restoration, awareness-raising for policy changes, and increased community resilience as the impacts of increased use and climate change become more apparent. Through the use of a case study examining the work of the Central Arizona Conservation Alliance’s social media ambassadorship and its app-supported community science projects, we examine the potential and realized positive impact that technology such as social media and smartphone apps can create for land managers and surrounding communities.


Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
Author(s):  
Ronald Baker ◽  
Dakota Bilbrey ◽  
Aaron Bland ◽  
Frank D’Alonzo ◽  
Hannah Ehrmann ◽  
...  

Habitat loss is a serious issue threatening biodiversity across the planet, including coastal habitats that support important fish populations. Many coastal areas have been extensively modified by the construction of infrastructure such as ports, seawalls, docks, and armored shorelines. In addition, habitat restoration and enhancement projects often include constructed breakwaters or reefs. Such infrastructure may have incidental or intended habitat values for fish, yet their physical complexity makes quantitatively sampling these habitats with traditional gears challenging. We used a fleet of unbaited underwater video cameras to quantify fish communities across a variety of constructed and natural habitats in Perdido and Pensacola Bays in the central northern Gulf of Mexico. Between 2019 and 2021, we collected almost 350 replicate 10 min point census videos from rock jetty, seawall, commercial, public, and private docks, artificial reef, restored oyster reef, seagrass, and shallow sandy habitats. We extracted standard metrics of Frequency of Occurrence and MaxN, as well as more recently developed MeanCount for each taxon observed. Using a simple method to measure the visibility range at each sampling site, we calculated the area of the field of view to convert MeanCount to density estimates. Our data revealed abundant fish assemblages on constructed habitats, dominated by important fisheries species, including grey snapper Lutjanus griseus and sheepshead Archosargus probatocephalus. Our analyses suggest that density estimates may be obtained for larger fisheries species under suitable conditions. Although video is limited in more turbid estuarine areas, where conditions allow, it offers a tool to quantify fish communities in structurally complex habitats inaccessible to other quantitative gears.


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Peter Stroh ◽  
John Bragg ◽  
Peter Carey ◽  
Carol Laidlaw ◽  
Martin Lester ◽  
...  

The Wicken Fen Vision (Cambridgeshire, UK) is a landscape-scale habitat restoration project that uses process-driven, open-ended approaches to develop habitats on highly degraded and drained peat soils of former intensive arable land. The project land is extensively grazed with herds of free-roaming, minimally managed herds of Highland cattle and Konik horses. In one 119 ha area, seven 25m x 25 m grazing exclosures were erected and vascular plant species were recorded from 2007 to 2017. Plant species data were analysed to (1) compare changes in plant species composition and diversity in grazed and ungrazed areas; (2) use plant species traits and plant-environment associations to explore the nature of changes in plant composition; (3) use remote sensing to explore changes in vegetation structure; (4) examine the influence of land use histories on grazing outcomes in different parts of the site.There was a clear divergence through time between grazed and ungrazed areas, attributed to significantly greater canopy height, Ellenberg L (Light) and Ellenberg N (fertility) values within the exclosures. Species richness was significantly higher in grazed compared with ungrazed areas and species assemblages separated through the study period. After ten years, extensive free-roaming grazing has had significant impacts on vegetation structure and species richness but effects varied across the study site because of differing historical land use.


2022 ◽  
pp. 5-13
Author(s):  
Wayne M. Edwards

The impact of climate change on Malagasy amphibians remains poorly understood. Equally, deforestation, fragmentation, and lack of connectivity between forest patches may leave vulnerable species isolated in habitat that no longer suits their environmental or biological requirements. We assess the predicted impact of climate change by 2085 on the potential distribution of a Critically Endangered frog species, the golden mantella (Mantella aurantiaca), that is confined to a small area of the central rainforest of Madagascar. We identify potential population distributions and climatically stable areas. Results suggest a potential south-eastwardly shift away from the current range and a decrease in suitable habitat from 2110 km2 under current climate to between 112 km2 – 138 km2 by the year 2085 – less than 7 % of currently available suitable habitat. Results also indicate that the amount of golden mantella habitat falling within protected areas decreases by 86 % over the same period. We recommend research to ascertain future viability and the feasibility of expanding protection to newly identified potential sites. This information can then be used in future conservation actions such as habitat restoration, translocations, re introductions or the siting of further wildlife corridors or protected areas.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lauren Ponisio

This protocol is for plant and pollinator monitoring to evaluate the outcomes of habitat restoration.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ben Ryan Jack Crichton ◽  
Michael J. H. Hickford ◽  
Angus A. R. McIntosh ◽  
David R. Schiel

With the global decline of freshwater fishes, quantifying the body size-specific habitat use of vulnerable species is crucial for accurately evaluating population health, identifying the effects of anthropogenic stressors, and directing effective habitat restoration. Populations of New Zealand’s endemic kōkopu species ( Galaxias fasciatus , G. argenteus , and G. postvectis ) have declined substantially over the last century in response to anthropogenic stressors, including habitat loss and fragmentation, invasive species, and over-exploitation. Despite well-understood habitat associations, key within-habitat features driving the reach-scale biomass of small and large kōkopu remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether the total biomass of small (≤ 90 mm) and large (> 90 mm) kōkopu was associated with total pool area, average pool depth, total bank cover, average substrate size, and average forest canopy cover across fifty-seven 50 m reaches. These features were selected because generally pool habitats are productive feeding areas, bank cover and substrate interstices are important refuges, and forest cover provides greater food availability. Because kōkopu are nocturnal, populations were sampled with removal at night using headlamps and hand-nets until reaches were visually depleted. Using Akaike’s information criterion, it was found that increases in large kōkopu biomass were most parsimoniously explained by greater pool area and bank cover, whereas increases in small kōkopu biomass were best explained by low bank cover and greater average forest cover. This study demonstrated the importance of considering the ontogenetic shift in species’ habitat use and provided an effective modelling approach for quantifying the size-specific habitat use of these stream-dwelling fish.


Author(s):  
Leah Lenoch ◽  
◽  
Paul Stumpner ◽  
Jon Burau ◽  
Luke Loken ◽  
...  

Hydrodynamics control the movement of water and material within and among habitats, where time-scales of mixing can exert bottom-up regulatory effects on aquatic ecosystems through their influence on primary production. The San Francisco Estuary (estuary) is a low-productivity ecosystem, which is in part responsible for constraining higher trophic levels, including fishes. Many research and habitat-restoration efforts trying to increase primary production have been conducted, including, as described here, a whole-ecosystem nutrient addition experiment where calcium nitrate was applied in the Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel (DWSC) to see if phytoplankton production could be increased and exported out of the DWSC. As an integral part of this experiment, we investigated the physical mechanisms that control mixing, and how these mechanisms affect the strength and duration of thermal stratification, which we revealed as critical for controlling phytoplankton dynamics in the relatively turbid upper DWSC. Analysis of a suite of mixing mechanisms and time-scales show that both tidal currents and wind control mixing rates and stratification dynamics in the DWSC. Longitudinal and vertical dispersion increased during periods of high wind, during which wind speed influenced dispersion more than tidal currents. Thermal stratification developed most days, which slowed vertical mixing but was rapidly broken down by wind-induced mixing. Stratification rarely persisted for longer than 24 hours, limiting phytoplankton production in the study area. The interaction between physical mechanisms that control mixing rates, mediate stratification dynamics, and ultimately limit primary production in the DWSC may be useful in informing habitat restoration elsewhere in the Delta and in other turbid aquatic environments.


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