nucleotide polymorphisms
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
L. M. Barbosa ◽  
M. B. Santiago ◽  
V. T. Moretto ◽  
D. Athanazio ◽  
D. Takahashi ◽  

Abstract Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an important component of the innate immune system and have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in TLR9 gene in a Brazilian SLE patients group and their association with clinical manifestation, particularly Jaccoud’s arthropathy (JA). We analyzed DNA samples from 204 SLE patients, having a subgroup of them presenting JA (n=24). A control group (n=133) from the same city was also included. TLR9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (−1237 C>T and +2848 G>A) were identified by sequencing analysis. The TLR9 gene genotype frequency was similar both in SLE patients and the control group. In the whole SLE population, an association between the homozygosis of allele C at position −1237 with psychosis and anemia (p < 0.01) was found. Likewise, the homozygosis of allele G at position +2848 was associated with a discoid rash (p < 0.05). There was no association between JA and TLR9 polymorphisms. These data show that TLR9 polymorphisms do not seem to be a predisposing factor for SLE in the Brazilian population, and that SNPs are not associated with JA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Changqing Mu ◽  
Yating Zhao ◽  
Chen Han ◽  
Dandan Tian ◽  
Na Guo ◽  

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing incidence and high mortality, resulting in a considerable socio-economic burden. Till now, plenty of studies have explored the potential relationship between circulating levels of various micronutrients and ALS risk. However, the observations remain equivocal and controversial. Thus, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to investigate the causality between circulating concentrations of 9 micronutrients, including retinol, folate acid, vitamin B12, B6 and C, calcium, copper, zinc as well as magnesium, and ALS susceptibility. In our analysis, several single nucleotide polymorphisms were collected as instrumental variables from large-scale genome-wide association studies of these 9 micronutrients. Then, inverse variance weighted (IVW) approach as well as alternative MR-Egger regression, weighted median and MR-pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) analyses were performed to evaluate causal estimates. The results from IVW analysis showed that there was no causal relationship of 9 micronutrients with ALS risk. Meanwhile, the three complementary approaches obtained similar results. Thus, our findings indicated that supplementation of these 9 micronutrients may not play a clinically effective role in preventing the occurrence of ALS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yan Zhou ◽  
Yingyi Zhang ◽  
Rui Zhao ◽  
Zhounan Cheng ◽  
Minzhu Tang ◽  

ObjectiveTo evaluate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RNA-seq identified mRNAs and silicosis susceptibility.MethodsA comprehensive RNA-seq was performed to screen for differently expressed mRNAs in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of eight subjects exposed to silica dust (four silicosis cases and four healthy controls). Following this, the SNPs located on the shortlisted mRNAs, which may affect silicosis susceptibility, were screened through silicosis-related genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (155 silicosis cases and 141 healthy controls), whereas functional expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL)-SNPs were identified using the GTEx database. Finally, the association between functional eQTL-SNPs and silicosis susceptibility (194 silicosis cases and 235 healthy controls) was validated.ResultsA total of 70 differentially expressed mRNAs (fold change &gt; 2 or fold change &lt; 0.5, P &lt; 0.05) was obtained using RNA-seq. Furthermore, 476 SNPs located on the shortlisted mRNAs, which may affect silicosis susceptibility (P &lt; 0.05) were obtained using GWAS, whereas subsequent six functional eQTL-SNPs were identified. The mutant A allele of rs9273410 in HLA-DQB1 indicated a potential increase in silicosis susceptibility in the validation stage (additive model: odds ratio (OR)= 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99–1.74, P = 0.061), whereas the combination of GWAS and the validation results indicated that the mutant A allele of rs9273410 was associated with increased silicosis susceptibility (additive model: OR = 1.35, 95% CI =1.09–1.68, P = 0.006).ConclusionThe mutant A allele of rs9273410 was associated with increased silicosis susceptibility by modulating the expression of HLA-DQB1.

2022 ◽  
Nadin Rohland ◽  
Swapan Mallick ◽  
Matthew Mah ◽  
Robert M Maier ◽  
Nick J Patterson ◽  

In-solution enrichment for hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been the source of >70% of all genome-scale ancient human DNA data published to date. This approach has made it possible to generate data for one to two orders of magnitude lower cost than random shotgun sequencing, making it economical to study ancient samples with low proportions of human DNA, and increasing the rate of conversion of sampled remains into working data thereby facilitating ethical stewardship of human remains. So far, nearly all ancient DNA data obtained using in-solution enrichment has been generated using a set of bait sequences targeting about 1.24 million SNPs (the 1240k reagent). These sequences were published in 2015, but synthesis of the reagent has been cost-effective for only a few laboratories. In 2021, two companies made available reagents that target the same core set of SNPs along with supplementary content. Here, we test the properties of the three reagents on a common set of 27 ancient DNA libraries across a range of richness of DNA content and percentages of human molecules. All three reagents are highly effective at enriching many hundreds of thousands of SNPs. For all three reagents and a wide range of conditions, one round of enrichment produces data that is as useful as two rounds when tens of millions of sequences are read out as is typical for such experiments. In our testing, the Twist Ancient DNA reagent produces the highest coverages, greatest uniformity on targeted positions, and almost no bias toward enriching one allele more than another relative to shotgun sequencing. Allelic bias in 1240k enrichment has made it challenging to carry out joint analysis of these data with shotgun data, creating a situation where the ancient DNA community has been publishing two important bodes of data that cannot easily be co-analyzed by population genetic methods. To address this challenge, we introduce a subset of hundreds of thousands of SNPs for which 1240k data can be effectively co-analyzed with all other major data types.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 933
Dominika Rozmus ◽  
Janusz Płomiński ◽  
Klaudia Augustyn ◽  
Anna Cieślińska

The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP, DBP) and its polymorphism in the vitamin D pathway and human health. This narrative review shows the latest literature on the most popular diseases that have previously been linked to VDBP. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in human metabolism, controlling phosphorus and calcium homeostasis. Vitamin D binding protein bonds vitamin D and its metabolites and transports them to target tissues. The most common polymorphisms in the VDBP gene are rs4588 and rs7041, which are located in exon 11 in domain III of the VDBP gene. rs4588 and rs7041 may be correlated with differences not only in vitamin D status in serum but also with vitamin D metabolites. This review supports the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDBP gene and presents the latest data showing correlations between VDBP variants with important human diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and others. In this review, we aim to systematize the knowledge regarding the occurrence of diseases and their relationship with vitamin D deficiencies, which may be caused by polymorphisms in the VDBP gene. Further research is required on the possible influence of SNPs, modifications in the structure of the binding protein, and their influence on the organism. It is also important to mention that most studies do not have a specific time of year to measure accurate vitamin D metabolite levels, which can be misleading in conclusions due to the seasonal nature of vitamin D.

Jun Wei Ng ◽  
Eric Tzyy Jiann Chong ◽  
Ping-Chin Lee

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and recently has become a serious global pandemic. Age, gender, and comorbidities are known to be common risk factors for severe COVID-19 but are not enough to fully explain the magnitude of their effect on the risk of severity of the disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes have been reported as a genetic factor contributing to COVID-19 severity. This comprehensive review focuses on the association between SNPs in four important genes and COVID-19 severity in a global aspect. We discuss a total of 39 SNPs in this review: five SNPs in the ABO gene, nine SNPs in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene, 19 SNPs in the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) gene, and six SNPs in the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene. These SNPs data could assist in monitoring an individual's risk of severe COVID-19 disease, and therefore personalized management and pharmaceutical treatment could be planned in COVID-19 patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Warren B Rouse ◽  
Ryan J Andrews ◽  
Nicholas J Booher ◽  
Jibo Wang ◽  
Michael E Woodman ◽  

ABSTRACT In recent years, interest in RNA secondary structure has exploded due to its implications in almost all biological functions and its newly appreciated capacity as a therapeutic agent/target. This surge of interest has driven the development and adaptation of many computational and biochemical methods to discover novel, functional structures across the genome/transcriptome. To further enhance efforts to study RNA secondary structure, we have integrated the functional secondary structure prediction tool ScanFold, into IGV. This allows users to directly perform structure predictions and visualize results—in conjunction with probing data and other annotations—in one program. We illustrate the utility of this new tool by mapping the secondary structural landscape of the human MYC precursor mRNA. We leverage the power of vast ‘omics’ resources by comparing individually predicted structures with published data including: biochemical structure probing, RNA binding proteins, microRNA binding sites, RNA modifications, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and others that allow functional inferences to be made and aid in the discovery of potential drug targets. This new tool offers the RNA community an easy to use tool to find, analyze, and characterize RNA secondary structures in the context of all available data, in order to find those worthy of further analyses.

Sarah Vosgerau ◽  
Nina Krattenmacher ◽  
Clemens Falker-Gieske ◽  
Anita Seidel ◽  
Jens Tetens ◽  

Abstract  Reliability of genomic predictions is influenced by the size and genetic composition of the reference population. For German Warmblood horses, compilation of a reference population has been enabled through the cooperation of five German breeding associations. In this study, preliminary data from this joint reference population were used to genetically and genomically characterize withers height and to apply single-step methodology for estimating genomic breeding values for withers height. Using data on 2113 mares and their genomic information considering about 62,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), analysis of the genomic relationship revealed substructures reflecting breed origin and different breeding goals of the contributing breeding associations. A genome-wide association study confirmed a known quantitative trait locus (QTL) for withers height on equine chromosome (ECA) 3 close to LCORL and identified a further significant peak on ECA 1. Using a single-step approach with a combined relationship matrix, the estimated heritability for withers height was 0.31 (SE = 0.08) and the corresponding genomic breeding values ranged from − 2.94 to 2.96 cm. A mean reliability of 0.38 was realized for these breeding values. The analyses of withers height showed that compiling a reference population across breeds is a suitable strategy for German Warmblood horses. The single-step method is an appealing approach for practical genomic prediction in horses, because not many genotypes are available yet and animals without genotypes can by this way directly contribute to the estimation system.

2022 ◽  
Yoshiteru Tabata ◽  
Yoshiyuki Matsuo ◽  
Yosuke Fujii ◽  
Atsufumi Ohta ◽  
Kiichi Hirota

Introduction: Precision medicine is a phrase used to describe personalized medical care tailored to specific patients based on their clinical presentation and genetic makeup. However, despite the fact that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with increased susceptibility to particular anesthetic agents and the occurrence of perioperative complications, genomic profiling and thus precision medicine has not been widely applied in perioperative management. Methods: We validated six SNP loci known to affect perioperative outcomes in Japanese patients using genomic DNA from saliva specimens and nanopore sequencing of each SNP loci to facilitate allele frequency calculations and then compared the nanopore results to those produced using the conventional dideoxy sequencing method. Results: Nanopore sequencing reads clustered into the expected genotypes in both homozygous and heterozygous cases. In addition, the nanopore sequencing results were consistent with those obtained using conventional dideoxy sequencing and the workflow provided reliable allele frequency estimation, with a total analysis time of less than 4 h. Conclusion: Thus, our results suggest that nanopore sequencing may be a promising and versatile tool for SNP genotyping, allowing for rapid and feasible risk prediction of perioperative outcomes.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 97
Xun Wang ◽  
Xiaoying Wang ◽  
Xiaoxiao Zhang ◽  
Sheng He ◽  
Yaosheng Chen ◽  

African swine fever (ASF) was first introduced into Northern China in 2018 and has spread through China since then. Here, we extracted the viral DNA from the blood samples from an ASF outbreak farm in Guangdong province, China and sequenced the whole genome. We assembled the full length genomic sequence of this strain, named China/GD/2019. The whole genome was 188,642 bp long (terminal inverted repeats and loops were not sequenced), encoding 175 open reading frames (ORF). The China/GD/2019 strain belonged to p72 genotype II and p54 genotype IIa. Phylogenetic analysis relationships based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also demonstrated that it grouped into genotype II. A certain number of ORFs mainly belonging to multigene families (MGFs) were absent in the China/GD/2019 strain in comparison to the China/ASFV/SY-18 strain. A deletion of approximately 1 kb was found in the China/GD/2019 genome which was located at the EP153R and EP402R genes in comparison to the China/2018/AnhuiXCGQ strain. We revealed a synonymous mutation site at gene F317L and a non-synonymous mutation site at gene MGF_360-6L in China/GD/2019 comparing to three known Chinese strains. Pair-wise comparison revealed 165 SNP sites in MGF_360-1L between Estonia 2014 and the China/GD/2019 strain. Comparing to China/GD/2019, we revealed a base deletion located at gene D1133L in China/Pig/HLJ/2018 and China/DB/LN/2018, which results in a frameshift mutation to alter the encoding protein. Our findings indicate that China/GD/2019 is a new variant with certain deletions and mutations. This study deepens our understanding of the genomic diversity and genetic variation of ASFV.

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