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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Miaomiao Li ◽  
Yunwen Ou ◽  
Danian Chen ◽  
Yaozhong Ding ◽  

Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3), a novel circovirus, imposes great burdens on the global pig industry. The penside tests for detecting PCV3 are critical for assessing the epidemiological status and working out disease prevention and control programs due to the unavailability of a commercial vaccine. A one-step molecular assay based on visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) was developed for simple and rapid detection of PCV3. We compared its sensitivity and specificity with TaqMan quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and applied the developed assay in the epidemiological study of (n = 407) pooled swine sera collected from almost the entire mainland China during the years 2017–2018. We also explored the feasibility of the vLAMP assay for detecting raw samples without a prior DNA isolation step to expand its application capability. Results showed that the vLAMP assay could reliably detect the PCV3 cap gene with a detection limit of 10 DNA copies equal to that of the Taqman qPCR assay. In the epidemiological study, the PCV3 positive detection rate for 407 swine pooled sera detected by the vLAMP assay was 37.35% (152/407), whereas it was 39.01% (159/407) for Taqman qPCR. For the detection method without genome extraction, the results kept satisfactory specificity (100%) but displayed lower sensitivity (100% for CT < 32), indicating the direct detection is not sensitive enough to discriminate the samples with low viral loads. The one-step vLAMP is a convenient, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic for penside detection and will enable the epidemiological surveillance of PCV3, which has widely spread in mainland China.

2022 ◽  
Silas Shumate ◽  
Maggie Haylett ◽  
Brenda Nelson ◽  
Nicole Young ◽  
Kurt Lamour ◽  

Tetranychus urticae (Koch) is an economically important pest of many agricultural commodities in the Pacific Northwest. Multiple miticides are currently registered for control including abamectin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, and extoxazole. However, populations of Tetranychus urticae have developed miticide resistance through multiple mechanisms, in many different growing regions. Producers of agricultural commodities where Tetranychus urticae infestations are problematic rely on integrated pest management tools to determine optimal control methods. Within this species multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms have been documented in different genes which are associated with miticide resistance phenotypes. The detection of these mutations through TaqMan qPCR has been suggested as a practical, quick, and reliable tool to inform agricultural producers of miticide resistance phenotypes present within their fields and have potential utility for making appropriate miticide application and integrated pest management decisions. Within this investigation we examined the use of a TaqMan qPCR-based approach to determine miticide resistance genotypes in field-collected populations of Tetranychus urticae from mint fields and hop yards in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and confirmed the results with a multiplex targeted sequencing. The results suggest the TaqMan approach accurately genotypes Tetranychus urticae populations collected from agricultural fields. The interpretation of the results, however, provide additional challenges for integrated pest management practitioners, including making miticide application recommendations where populations of Tetranychus urticae are a mix of resistant and wildtype individuals.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1466
Christina Zübert ◽  
Michael Kube

The γ-proteobacterium ‘Candidatus Arsenophonus phytopathogenicus’ is assigned as the major pathogen of “Syndrome des basses richesses”, a sugar beet disease characterised by a reduction in the sugar content of taproots and biomass yield. Despite the economic impact of this bacteriosis, diagnostics for this important pathogen currently rely on end-point PCR detection. Herein, we introduce a TaqMan qPCR for diagnostics of the agent targeting genes encoding a heat shock protein of the Hsp20 family and mannose-6-phosphate isomerase. Quantitation with synthetic oligonucleotides as standard showed that the developed TaqMan qPCR assays enable the detection of up to 100 target copies. A comparison between the TaqMan qPCR and end-point PCR for ‘Ca. A. phytopathogenicus’ detection was carried out on 78 sugar beet samples from different locations in southern Germany. The newly developed assays enable the fast, reliable and sensitive detection of ‘Ca. A. phytopathogenicus’ in sugar beet.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12285
Koki Yanazawa ◽  
Takehito Sugasawa ◽  
Kai Aoki ◽  
Takuro Nakano ◽  
Yasushi Kawakami ◽  

Background Gene doping is the misuse of genome editing and gene therapy technologies for the purpose of manipulating specific genes or gene functions in order to improve athletic performance. However, a non-invasive detection method for gene doping using recombinant adenoviral (rAdV) vectors containing human follistatin (hFST) genes (rAdV<hFST>) has not yet been developed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to detect gene doping using rAdV<hFST>. Methods First, we generated rAdV<hFST> and evaluated the overexpression of the hFST gene, FST protein, and muscle protein synthesis signaling using cell lines. Next, rAdV<hFST> was injected intravenously or intramuscularly into mice, and whole blood was collected, and hFST and cytomegalovirus promoter (CMVp) gene fragments were detected using TaqMan-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Finally, to confirm the specificity of the primers and the TaqMan probes, samples from each experiment were pooled, amplified using TaqMan-qPCR, and sequenced using the Sanger sequencing. Results The expression of hFST and FST proteins and muscle protein synthesis signaling significantly increased in C2C12 cells. In long-term, transgene fragments could be detected until 4 days after intravenous injection and 3 days after intramuscular injection. Finally, the Sanger sequencing confirmed that the primers and TaqMan probe specifically amplified the gene sequence of interest. Conclusions These results indicate the possibility of detecting gene doping using rAdV<hFST> using TaqMan-qPCR in blood samples. This study may contribute to the development of detection methods for gene doping using rAdV<hFST>.

Thomas Ewout van der Schalk ◽  
Jasmine Coppens ◽  
Leen Timbermont ◽  
Agata Turlej-Rogacka ◽  
Liesbet Van Heirstraeten ◽  

Abstract Introduction Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Rapid and accurate detection of lower respiratory tract colonization and/or infection with P. aeruginosa may advise targeted preventive (antibody-based) strategies and antibiotic therapy. To investigate this, we compared semi-quantitative culture results from 80 endotracheal aspirates (ETA) collected from mechanically-ventilated patients, to two culture and two non-culture-based methods for detection of P. aeruginosa. Methods P. aeruginosa-positive (n = 40) and -negative (n = 40) ETAs from mechanically ventilated patients analyzed initally by (i) routine semi-quantitative culture, were further analyzed with (ii) quantitative culture on chromogenic ChromID P. aeruginosa and blood agar; (iii) enrichment in brain heart infusion broth followed by plating on blood agar and ChromID P. aeruginosa; (iv) O-antigen acetylase gene-based TaqMan qPCR; and (v) GeneXpert PA PCR assay. Results Of the 80 ETA samples included, one sample that was negative for P. aeruginosa by semi-quantitative culture was found to be positive by the other four methods, and was included in an “extended” gold standard panel. Based on this extended gold standard, both semi-quantitative culture and the GeneXpert PA assay showed 97.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The quantitative culture, enrichment culture and O-antigen acetylase gene-based TaqMan qPCR had a sensitivity of 97.6%, 89.5%, 92.7%, and a specificity of 97.4%, 100%, and 71.1%, respectively. Conclusion This first evaluation of the GeneXpert PA assay with ETA samples found it to be as sensitive and specific as the routine, hospital-based semi-quantitative culture method. Additionally, the GeneXpert PA assay is easy to perform (hands-on time ≈ 5 min) and rapid (≈ 55 min assay time). The combination of the high sensitivity and high specificity together with the rapid acquisition of results makes the GeneXpert PA assay a highly recommended screening technique. Where this equipment is not available, semi-quantitative culture remains the most sensitive of the culture methods evaluated here for P. aeruginosa detection in ETA samples.

2021 ◽  
Silvia Turco ◽  
Giorgia Bastianelli ◽  
Carmen Morales‐Rodrìguez ◽  
Andrea Vannini ◽  
Angelo Mazzaglia

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 676
Takehito Sugasawa ◽  
Shin-ichiro Fujita ◽  
Tomoaki Kuji ◽  
Noriyo Ishibashi ◽  
Kenshirou Tamai ◽  

Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is frequently analyzed using liquid biopsy to investigate cancer markers. We hypothesized that this concept might be applicable in exercise physiology. Here, we aimed to identify specific cfDNA (spcfDNA) sequences in the plasma of healthy humans using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and clearly define the dynamics regarding spcfDNA-fragment levels upon extreme exercises, such as running a full marathon. NGS analysis was performed using cfDNA of pooled plasma collected from healthy participants. We confirmed that the TaqMan-qPCR assay had high sensitivity and found that the spcfDNA sequence abundance was 16,600-fold higher than that in a normal genomic region. We then used the TaqMan-qPCR assay to investigate the dynamics of spcfDNA-fragment levels upon running a full marathon. The spcfDNA fragment levels were significantly increased post-marathon. Furthermore, spcfDNA fragment levels were strongly correlated with white blood cell and plasma myoglobin concentrations. These results suggest the spcfDNA fragments identified in this study were highly sensitive as markers of extreme physical stress. The findings of this study may provide new insights into exercise physiology and genome biology in humans.

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