cell metabolism
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Oncogene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Yonglei Liu ◽  
Li Ma ◽  
Fanli Hua ◽  
Zhihui Min ◽  
Yanxia Zhan ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 73-77
Dayu Nirwana Putri ◽  
Sri Widyarti ◽  
Yoga Dwi Jatmiko

Free radicals are constantly produced by either cell metabolism or from external sources. At high concentration, they induced a tissue damage called oxidative stress. Soursop leaf (Annona muricata L.) and noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L.) are medicinal plants with potency as antioxidants. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum BP102 in elevating the antioxidant activity of soursop and noni leaves. Dried-powder and methanol extract of soursop and noni leaves were diluted with sterile distilled water 3 g/30 mL and 0.3 g/30 mL, respectively, inoculated with 1% (v/v) of L. plantarum BP102 inoculum. The antioxidant activity was carried out using the 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The antioxidant activity increased in dried-powder and methanol extract of soursop and noni leaves with different activity levels after being fermented using L. plantarum BP102 based on IC50. The increasing antioxidant activity in dried-powder of soursop leaves IC50 6.41±0.06 to 0.034±0.01 mg/mL (99.5%) was higher than of the methanol extract IC50 2.78±0.00 to 0.11±0.01 mg/mL (96%). Unfortunately, the effect of fermentation towards noni leaves could only be observed in the form of methanol extract IC50 12.8±0.01 to 0.33±0.02 mg/mL (increased by 97.4%), the dried-powder of noni leaves was suspended and produced a dark color. The probiotic L. plantarum BP102 was used as a fermented agent in increasing the bioactive compounds especially related to antioxidant activity.

Francesca Cuomo ◽  
Carmela Dell’Aversana ◽  
Teresa Chioccarelli ◽  
Veronica Porreca ◽  
Francesco Manfrevola ◽  

Maintenance of energy balance between intake and expenditure is a prerequisite of human health, disrupted in severe metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), mainly due to accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). WAT undergoes a morphological and energetic remodelling toward brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the BAT activation has anti-obesity potential. The mechanisms or the regulatory factors able to activate BAT thermogenesis have been only partially deciphered. Identifying novel regulators of BAT induction is a question of great importance for fighting obesity and T2D. Here, we evaluated the role of Hif3α in murine pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cell line, a versatile and well characterized biological model of adipogenesis, by gain- and loss-of function approaches and in thermogenesis-induced model in vivo. HIF3A is regulated by inflammation, it modulates lypolysis in adipose tissue of obese adults, but its role in energy metabolism has not previously been investigated. We characterized gene and protein expression patterns of adipogenesis and metabolic activity in vitro and mechanistically in vivo. Overexpression of Hif3α in differentiating adipocytes increases white fat cells, whereas silencing of Hif3α promotes “browning” of white cells, activating thermogenesis through upregulation of Ucp1, Elovl3, Prdm16, Dio2 and Ppargc1a genes. Investigating cell metabolism, Seahorse Real-Time Cell Metabolism Analysis showed that silencing of Hif3α resulted in a significant increase of mitochondrial uncoupling with a concomitant increase in acetyl-CoA metabolism and Sirt1 and Sirt3 expression. The causal Hif3α/Ucp1 inverse relation has been validated in Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) knockout, a thermogenesis-induced model in vivo. Our data indicate that Hif3α inhibition triggers “browning” of white adipocytes activating the beneficial thermogenesis rewiring energy metabolism in vitro and in vivo. HIF3A is a novel player that controls the energy metabolism with potential applications in developing therapy to fight metabolic disorders, as obesity, T2D and ultimately cancer.

2022 ◽  
Hsiao Chiang ◽  
Daniel Koo ◽  
Masahiro Kitano ◽  
Jay Unruh ◽  
Le Trinh ◽  

Abstract The expanded application of fluorescence imaging in biomedical and biological research towards more complex systems and geometries requires tools that can analyze a multitude of components at widely varying time- and length-scales. The major challenge in such complex imaging experiments is to cleanly separate multiple fluorescent labels with overlapping spectra from one another and background autofluorescence, without perturbing the sample with high levels of light. Thus, there is a requirement for efficient and robust analysis tools capable of quantitatively separating these signals. In response, we have combined multispectral fluorescence microscopy with hyperspectral phasors and linear unmixing to create Hybrid Unmixing (HyU). Here we demonstrate its capabilities in the dynamic imaging of multiple fluorescent labels in live, developing zebrafish embryos. HyU is more sensitive to low light levels of fluorescence compared to conventional linear unmixing approaches, permitting better multiplexed volumetric imaging over time, with less bleaching. HyU can also simultaneously image both bright exogenous and dim endogenous labels because of its high dynamic range. This allows studies of cellular behaviors, tagged components, and cell metabolism within the same specimen, offering a powerful window into the orchestrated complexity of biological systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
Lin Yang ◽  
Zhixin Zhang ◽  
Doudou Wang ◽  
Yu Jiang ◽  
Ying Liu

Abstract: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a pivotal regulator of cell metabolism and growth. In the form of two different multi-protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR integrates cellular energy, nutrient and hormonal signals to regulate cellular metabolic homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aberrant mTOR signaling underlies its pathological conditions and end-organ complications. Substantial evidence suggests that two mTOR-mediated signaling schemes, mTORC1-p70S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and mTORC2-protein kinase B (AKT), play a critical role in insulin sensitivity and that their dysfunction contributes to development of T2DM. This review summaries our current understanding of the role of mTOR signaling in T2DM and its associated complications, as well as the potential use of mTOR inhibitors in treatment of T2DM.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 346
Meilan Hu ◽  
Fule He ◽  
Erik W. Thompson ◽  
Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov ◽  
Xiaofeng Dai

Acetylation, a reversible epigenetic process, is implicated in many critical cellular regulatory systems including transcriptional regulation, protein structure, activity, stability, and localization. Lysine acetylation is the most prevalent and intensively investigated among the diverse acetylation forms. Owing to the intrinsic connections of acetylation with cell metabolism, acetylation has been associated with metabolic disorders including cancers. Yet, relatively little has been reported on the features of acetylation against the cancer hallmarks, even though this knowledge may help identify appropriate therapeutic strategies or combinatorial modalities for the effective treatment and resolution of malignancies. By examining the available data related to the efficacy of lysine acetylation against tumor cells and elaborating the primary cancer hallmarks and the associated mechanisms to target the specific hallmarks, this review identifies the intrinsic connections between lysine acetylation and cancer hallmarks and proposes novel modalities that can be combined with HDAC inhibitors for cancer treatment with higher efficacy and minimum adverse effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Dingju Wei ◽  
Meng Xu ◽  
Zhihua Wang ◽  
Jingjing Tong

Metabolic reprogramming is one of the hallmarks of malignant tumors, which provides energy and material basis for tumor rapid proliferation, immune escape, as well as extensive invasion and metastasis. Blocking the energy and material supply of tumor cells is one of the strategies to treat tumor, however tumor cell metabolic heterogeneity prevents metabolic-based anti-cancer treatment. Therefore, searching for the key metabolic factors that regulate cell cancerous change and tumor recurrence has become a major challenge. Emerging technology––single-cell metabolomics is different from the traditional metabolomics that obtains average information of a group of cells. Single-cell metabolomics identifies the metabolites of single cells in different states by mass spectrometry, and captures the molecular biological information of the energy and substances synthesized in single cells, which provides more detailed information for tumor treatment metabolic target screening. This review will combine the current research status of tumor cell metabolism with the advantages of single-cell metabolomics technology, and explore the role of single-cell sequencing technology in searching key factors regulating tumor metabolism. The addition of single-cell technology will accelerate the development of metabolism-based anti-cancer strategies, which may greatly improve the prognostic survival rate of cancer patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Dianbo Long ◽  
Yiyang Xu ◽  
Guping Mao ◽  
Ruobing Xin ◽  
Zengfa Deng ◽  

AbstracttRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) are new noncoding RNAs, and recent studies have shown that tRNAs and tRFs have important functions in cell metabolism via posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. However, whether tRFs regulate cellular metabolism of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and action mechanism of tRFs in ACL cell metabolism. A tRF array was used to determine tRF expression profiles in different human ACL cells, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridisation were used to determine TRF365 expression. ACL cells were transfected with a TRF365 mimic or a TRF365 inhibitor to determine whether TRF365 regulates IKBKB expression. A rescue experiment and dual-luciferase reporter assay were conducted to determine whether the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of IKBKB has a TRF365-binding site. TRF365 was weakly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA) ACL and interleukin-1β-treated ACL cells. IKBKB was highly expressed in OA ACL and interleukin-1β-treated ACL cells; transfection with the TRF365 mimic suppressed IKBKB expression, whereas transfection with the TRF365 inhibitor had the opposite effect. A dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that TRF365 silenced the expression of IKBKB by binding to its 3′-UTR. Thus, TRF365 regulates the metabolism of ACL cells by targeting IKBKB. In summary, TRF365 may provide a new direction for the study of ACL degeneration and on the pathophysiological process of OA.

Gema Alama-Bermejo ◽  
Pavla Bartošová-Sojková ◽  
Stephen D. Atkinson ◽  
Astrid S. Holzer ◽  
Jerri L. Bartholomew

Proteases and their inhibitors play critical roles in host-parasite interactions and in the outcomes of infections. Ceratonova shasta is a myxozoan pathogen that causes enteronecrosis in economically important salmonids from the Pacific Northwest of North America. This cnidarian parasite has host-specific genotypes with varying virulence, making it a powerful system to decipher virulence mechanisms in myxozoans. Using C. shasta genome and transcriptome, we identified four proteases of different catalytic types: cathepsin D (aspartic), cathepsin L and Z-like (cysteine) and aminopeptidase-N (metallo); and a stefin (cysteine protease inhibitor), which implied involvement in virulence and hence represent target molecules for the development of therapeutic strategies. We characterized, annotated and modelled their 3D protein structure using bioinformatics and computational tools. We quantified their expression in C. shasta genotype 0 (low virulence, no mortality) and IIR (high virulence and mortality) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, to demonstrate that there are major differences between the genotypes during infection and parasite development. High proliferation of genotype IIR was associated with high expression of the cathepsin D and the stefin, likely correlated with high nutrient demands and to regulate cell metabolism, with upregulation preceding massive proliferation and systemic dispersion. In contrast, upregulation of the cathepsin L and Z-like cysteine proteases may have roles in host immune evasion in genotype 0 infections, which are associated with low proliferation, low inflammation and non-destructive development. In contrast to the other proteases, C. shasta aminopeptidase-N appears to have a prominent role in nematocyst formation in both genotypes, but only during sporogenesis. Homology searches of C. shasta proteases against other myxozoan transcriptomes revealed a high abundance of cathepsin L and aminopeptidase homologs suggesting common gene requirements across species. Our study identified molecules of potential therapeutic significance for aquaculture and serves as a baseline for future research aimed at functional characterisation of these targets.

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