hepatitis e
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Moru Xu ◽  
Fusen Hang ◽  
Kun Qian ◽  
Hongxia Shao ◽  
Jianqiang Ye ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncovirus which can induce multiple types of tumors in chicken. In this report, we found novel ALV-J infection is closely associated with serious hepatomegaly and splenomegaly in chicken. Case presentation The layer chickens from six flocks in Jiangsu province, China, showed serious hemoperitoneum, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Histopathological results indicated focal lymphocytic infiltration, cell edema and congestion in the liver, atrophy and depletion of lymphocyte in the spleen. Tumor cells were not detected in all the organs. avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV), which is thought to be the cause of a very similar disease, big liver and spleen disease (BLS), was not detected. Other viruses causing tumors or liver damage including Marek’s disease virus (MDV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), fowl adenovirus (FAdV) and chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) were also proved negative by either PCR or RT-PCR. However, we did detect ALV-J in those chickens using PCR. Only novel ALV-J strains were efficiently isolated from these chicken livers. Conclusions This is the first report that chicken hepatomegaly and splenomegaly disease was closely associated with novel ALV-J, highlighting the importance of ALV-J eradication program in China.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yaqiong Guo ◽  
Una Ryan ◽  
Yaoyu Feng ◽  
Lihua Xiao

Animal farming has intensified significantly in recent decades, with the emergence of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in industrialized nations. The congregation of susceptible animals in CAFOs can lead to heavy environmental contamination with pathogens, promoting the emergence of hyper-transmissible, and virulent pathogens. As a result, CAFOs have been associated with emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, hepatitis E virus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Streptococcus suis, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Cryptosporidium parvum in farm animals. This has led to increased transmission of zoonotic pathogens in humans and changes in disease patterns in general communities. They are exemplified by the common occurrence of outbreaks of illnesses through direct and indirect contact with farm animals, and wide occurrence of similar serotypes or subtypes in both humans and farm animals in industrialized nations. Therefore, control measures should be developed to slow down the dispersal of zoonotic pathogens associated with CAFOs and prevent the emergence of new pathogens of epidemic and pandemic potential.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yajuan He ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  
Naijuan Yao ◽  
Yuchao Wu ◽  
Yingren Zhao ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Viral hepatitis E clinically ranges from self-limiting hepatitis to lethal liver failure. Oxidative stress has been shown to mediate hepatic inflammation during HBV-induced liver failure. We investigated whether a biomarker of oxidative stress may be helpful in assessing severity and disease outcomes of patients with HEV-induced liver failure. Methods Clinical data were obtained from patients with HEV-induced acute viral hepatitis (AVH, n = 30), acute liver failure (ALF, n = 17), and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF, n = 36), as well as from healthy controls (HC, n = 30). The SOD and HMGB1 levels were measured in serum by ELISA. HL-7702 cells were cultured and stimulated by serum from HEV-infected patients or by HMGB1; oxidative status was investigated by CellROX and apoptosis was investigated by flow cytometry. Results Patients with HEV-induced liver failure (including ALF and ACLF) showed increased SOD levels compared with HEV-AVH patients and healthy controls. SOD levels > 400 U/mL were associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality in HEV-ALF and HEV-ACLF patients. Serum from HEV-infected patients led to ROS accumulation, HMGB1 secretion, and apoptosis in HL-7702 cells. Antioxidant treatment successfully inhibited HEV-induced HMGB1 secretion, and HMGB1 promoted apoptosis in HL-7702 cells. Conclusion HEV increased oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of HEV-induced hepatic diseases. Early testing of serum SOD may serve as a predictor of both HEV-ALF and HEV-ACLF outcomes. Moreover, development of strategies for modulating oxidative stress might be a potential target for treating HEV-induced liver failure patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-75
Author(s):  
Carmen Ka Man Cheung ◽  
Sunny Hei Wong ◽  
Alvin Wing Hin Law ◽  
Man Fai Law
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Dipti M. Shah ◽  
Prakash P. Prajapati ◽  
Munjal J. Pandya ◽  
Nimisha J. Chaudhary ◽  
Gira C. Dabhi

Background: Hepatitis E is considered as a common cause of high maternal morbidity and mortality particularly in third trimester and also high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Thus, this study is conducted to evaluate the feto-maternal outcome in patients infected with hepatitis E during pregnancy.Methods: It is a retrospective observational study conducted in department of obstetrics and gynecology at L. G. hospital. Fifty pregnant women with clinical hepatitis in third trimester of pregnancy were included in this study and thorough investigation were carried out. Patients were monitored till postpartum period and fetal monitoring data were collected from neonatal ICU.Results: In this study, majority of pregnant patients with hepatitis B were admitted during monsoon season suggests that HEV outbreaks are more common during monsoon months. Majority of the patients (70%) were emergency cases. Majority of these patients (82%) were belonged to lower socio-economic class. Co-infection with HAV was in 2% and with HBV in 4%. S. bilirubin >15 mg/dl in 16% of patients. PT and APTT were raised in 28% of patients. FDP was raised in 70% of patients. 76% were delivered vaginally and 22% were delivered by LSCS. Most common complication in HEV infected pregnant women was disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (26%). Maternal mortality rate is 14%. Out of 50 patients, 88% delivered live baby, out of which 72% needed NICU admission. Perinatal mortality rate was as high as 28%.Conclusions: Hepatitis E infection and pregnancy is a deadly and fatal combination. Specifically, in 3rd trimester of pregnancy, acute hepatitis E has a grave prognosis with high maternal morbidity and mortality. Prevention is the mainstay of controlling HEV especially in developing countries.


Author(s):  
Reimar Johne ◽  
Nadine Althof ◽  
Karsten Nöckler ◽  
Alexander Falkenhagen

ZusammenfassungDas Hepatitis-E-Virus (HEV) ist ein Erreger einer akuten Hepatitis beim Menschen. Darüber hinaus treten zunehmend auch chronische Infektionen mit fataler Leberzirrhose bei immunsupprimierten Transplantationspatienten auf. Die Zahl der gemeldeten Hepatitis-E-Fälle in Deutschland hat in den vergangenen Jahren stark zugenommen. Hier kommt vor allem der Genotyp 3 vor, der zoonotisch von Tieren auf den Menschen übertragen werden kann. Haus- und Wildschweine, die ohne die Ausbildung klinischer Symptome infiziert werden, stellen das Hauptreservoir dar. In diesem Artikel werden die Verbreitung von HEV in Tieren in Deutschland, mögliche Übertragungswege des Virus und insbesondere die Bedeutung von Lebensmitteln bei der Übertragung anhand der aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Literatur dargestellt.HEV ist in Haus- und Wildschweinen in Deutschland stark verbreitet und wird hauptsächlich über direkten Kontakt oder den Verzehr von Lebensmitteln, die aus diesen Tieren hergestellt wurden, auf den Menschen übertragen. Beim HEV-RNA-Nachweis in spezifischen Lebensmitteln bleibt allerdings oft unklar, ob das enthaltene Virus noch infektiös ist oder durch die Herstellungsbedingungen inaktiviert wurde. Neuere Studien weisen auf eine hohe Stabilität des HEV unter verschiedenen physikochemischen Bedingungen hin, wohingegen eine Inaktivierung unter anderem durch Erhitzung erreicht wird. Generell wird deshalb ein ausreichendes Erhitzen von Schweinefleisch und -leber vor dem Verzehr empfohlen und für Risikogruppen zusätzlich der Verzicht auf den Verzehr kurzgereifter Rohwürste.Weitere Forschungen sind nötig, um relevante Risikolebensmittel zu identifizieren, alternative Übertragungswege zu untersuchen und effiziente Maßnahmen zu entwickeln, die eine zoonotische Virusübertragung zukünftig verringern oder vermeiden.


Author(s):  
Zhijie Jian ◽  
Youyou Li ◽  
Zhiwen Xu ◽  
Jun Zhao ◽  
Fengqin Li ◽  
...  

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Author(s):  
Janine Zöllkau ◽  
Juliane Ankert ◽  
Mathias W. Pletz ◽  
Sasmita Mishra ◽  
Gregor Seliger ◽  
...  

Background: Infections, as well as adverse birth outcomes, may be more frequent in migrant women. Schistosomiasis, echinococcosis, and hepatitis E virus (HEV) seropositivity are associated with the adverse pregnancy outcomes of fetal growth restriction and premature delivery. Methods: A cohort study of 82 pregnant women with a history of migration and corresponding delivery of newborns in Germany was conducted. Results: Overall, 9% of sera tested positive for anti-HEV IgG. None of the patients tested positive for anti-HEV IgM, schistosomiasis, or echinococcus serology. Birth weights were below the 10th percentile for gestational age in 8.5% of the neonates. No association between HEV serology and fetal growth restriction (FGR) frequency was found. Conclusions: In comparison to German baseline data, no increased risk for HEV exposure or serological signs of exposure against schistosomiasis or echinococcosis could be observed in pregnant migrants. An influence of the anti-HEV serology status on fetal growth restriction could not be found.


2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Bes ◽  
Maria I. Costafreda ◽  
Mar Riveiro-Barciela ◽  
Maria Piron ◽  
Angie Rico ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
pp. 109331
Author(s):  
Yani Sun ◽  
Wenlong Yan ◽  
Xu Chen ◽  
Qianqian Liu ◽  
Pinpin Ji ◽  
...  

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