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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1746-6148, 1746-6148

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Keigo Iizuka ◽  
Kumiko Ishigaki ◽  
Mamiko Seki ◽  
Takahiro Nagumo ◽  
Kei Tamura ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Prostatic cancer is uncommon in dogs. Dogs with prostatic carcinoma have been reported to have a poor prognosis. Information regarding prognosis with various surgery options as well as prognosis with surgical vs. medical treatment is lacking. This retrospective study compares the outcomes of medical management to surgical treatment in dogs with prostatic adenocarcinoma and assesses the surgical outcomes of patients who underwent total prostatectomy (TP) and prostatocystectomy (TPC). The medical records of 41 dogs with prostatic adenocarcinoma, between February 2008 and June 2019, were reviewed for information on signalment, clinical signs in the initial evaluation, preoperative diagnostic imaging findings, treatment type (non-surgical or surgical), surgery type, postoperative complications, adjunctive medical therapy, and survival time. The dogs were divided into non-surgical (n = 12) or surgical (n = 29) groups. The surgical group was subdivided into the TP (n = 20) and TPC (n = 9) subgroups. Results Age was not significantly different between the surgical (median 13.1 years [8.4–15.4] years) and the non-surgical groups (median 10.8 [7.7–15.3] years). Body weight (BW) was also not significantly different between the surgical (median 6.8 kg [2.4–34.5 kg]) and non-surgical groups (median 6.4 kg [3.7–9.12 kg]). The overall median survival time (MST) from the initial evaluation was significantly longer in the surgical than in the non-surgical group (337 vs. 90.5 days). The postoperative MST was significantly longer in the TP group than in the TPC subgroup (510 vs. 83 days). As TPC was performed in cases of tumor progression, its postoperative complications were severe, resulting in a shorter MST. Ten (50%) and 6 patients (30%) in the TP subgroup postoperatively showed mild and severe urinary incontinence, respectively, whereas all patients in TPC subgroup did show severe incontinence. Conclusion Results of the study suggest that surgical treatment of prostatic carcinoma results in longer survival times over medical management alone. In particular, TP might be recommended for improving survival time and quality of life in canine prostatic adenocarcinoma that does not infiltrate the bladder. Early detection is key for a survival advantage with surgical treatment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kang Mao ◽  
Guwei Lu ◽  
Yanjiao Li ◽  
Yitian Zang ◽  
Xianghui Zhao ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The fasting and stress associated with road transportation contributes to a lack of energy and a decline in the immune system of beef cattle. Therefore, it is essential for beef cattle to enhance energy reserves before transportation. Creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) is a new multifunctional nutrient that can provide both pyruvate and creatine, which are two intermediate products of energy metabolism. To investigate the effects of transport and rumen-protected (RP)-CrPyr on the blood biochemical parameters and rumen fluid characteristics of beef cattle, twenty male Simmental crossbred cattle (659 ± 16 kg) aged 18 months were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 5) using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two RP-CrPyr supplemental levels (0 or 140 g/d) and two transport treatments (5 min or 12 h): T_CrPyr140, T_CrPyr0, NT_CrPyr140, and NT_CrPyr0. After feeding for 30 days, three cattle per treatment were slaughtered. Results Compared with nontransport, transport decreased the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, contents of IgA, interferon γ, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in serum, and the amounts of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA), acetate, and butyrate in rumen (P < 0.05); increased the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level, contents of rumen LPS and ammonia nitrogen (P < 0.05). RP-CrPyr supplementation decreased the levels of cortisol and LPS in serum and the butyrate concentration in the rumen of beef cattle compared with those in the unsupplemented groups (P < 0.05). RP-CrPyr and transport interaction had a significant effect on the contents of serum tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-6, LPS, ruminal pH, acetate content, and acetate/propionate (P < 0.05). In terms of ruminal bacterial composition, group T_CrPyr0 increased the Prevotella genus abundance compared with group NT_CrPyr0 (P < 0.05), while group T_CrPyr140 increased Firmicutes phylum abundance and decreased Bacteroidetes phylum and genus Prevotella abundance compared with group T_CrPyr0 (P < 0.05). Moreover, Bacteroidetes was positively correlated with serum LPS. Conclusions These results indicated that dietary supplementation with RP-CrPyr might be beneficial to alleviate transport stress by decreasing serum cortisol and LPS levels and promoting the restoration of the rumen natural flora.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Debra C. Sellon ◽  
Denis J. Marcellin-Little

Abstract Background Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is one of the most common causes of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Risk factors for CCLR include breed (especially large and giant breeds), body weight, gender and spay/neuter status, and age. Few studies have evaluated physical activity and fitness indicators, however, as risk factors for disease. This study used an online questionnaire distributed primarily via social media to assess risk factors for CCLR in dogs actively engaged in agility training or competition to determine demographic and physical activity factors associated with rupture. Results Data from 260 dogs with CCLR were compared to similar data from 1006 dogs without CCLR. All dogs were actively training or competing in agility at the time of CCLR or the time of data submission, respectively. Physical characteristics associated with increased risk of CCLR included younger age, spayed female sex, greater body weight, and greater weight to height ratio. Agility activities associated with increased odds ratios included competition in events sponsored by the North American Dog Agility Council (NADAC), competing at novice and intermediate levels, and competing in fewer than 10 events/year. Odds ratios were lower in dogs that competed in events sponsored by United Kingdom Agility International (UKI). Other activities associated with increased odds ratio for CCLR included involvement in flyball activities and short walks or runs over hilly or flat terrain on a weekly basis. Activities associated with decreased odds ratio included involvement in dock diving, barn hunt, nosework, or lure coursing/racing activities and participation in core balance and strength exercises at least weekly. Conclusions These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that body weight and spay/neuter status are risk factors for CCLR in dogs. This is the first report to demonstrate that risk of CCLR in agility dogs is decreased in dogs that engage in regular core strengthening exercises, compete more frequently, compete at higher levels, and compete in more athletically challenging venues.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Belisa Usmael ◽  
Bruk Abraha ◽  
Sisay Alemu ◽  
Bahar Mummed ◽  
Adem Hiko ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Dogs are one of the important asymptomatic carriers of antimicrobial resistant and potentially pathogenic strains of Salmonella. They can harbor large bacterial load in the intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes which can be shed in their feces with the possibility of transmission to humans. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella, assessing the risk factors for dog’s Salmonella carriage, and profiling the antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates among housed dogs in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 415 rectal swab samples were collected from randomly selected dogs. Samples were examined for non-typhoidal Salmonella using standard bacteriologic culture and biochemical tests. The disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test) was employed to evaluate the isolates for their susceptibility against five antimicrobials. Results Non-typhoidal Salmonella were isolated from 26 (6.3%) of the rectal swab samples, with significantly higher occurrence in diarrheic (15.2%) than non-diarrheic (5.5%) dogs. The risk of Salmonella harboring was significantly higher in female dogs than in male dogs (OR = 2.5, p = 0.027). Dogs fecal shedding of Salmonella was relatively higher in households who used offal as a main feed type for their dogs (23.1%; 95% CI = 5–53.8) than those who used leftover food (10.1%; 95% CI = 5.7–16.1) and practiced mixed feeding system (17%; 95% CI = 7.6–30.8). Salmonella isolates showed higher resistance to ampicillin (41.7%), while all isolates were fully susceptible to gentamicin. Moreover, 58.3% of Salmonella isolates showed resistance to at least one of the tested antimicrobials. Majorities (72.7%) of the dog owners had no awareness on the risk of zoonotic salmonellosis from dog and all of the respondents use bare hand to clean dog kennel. Conclusion Our study reveals the importance of both diarrheic and apparently healthy housed dogs in the harboring and shedding of antimicrobial resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella. The risk of non-typhoidal Salmonella spread among pet owners is not negligible, especially in households who use offal as main feed type. Therefore, an integrated approach such as: proper dog handling practices; continuous evaluation of antimicrobial resistance; and rational use of antimicrobials in the field of veterinary sector are necessary to tackle the problem.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gabriela Lukesova ◽  
Eva Voslarova ◽  
Vladimir Vecerek ◽  
Katarina Nenadovic

Abstract Background Wildlife rescue centres care for orphaned and injured young as an integral part of their work. However, inappropriate interventions in nature can have a negative effect on the survival of young hares, especially when the care of these young is not very successful. The aim of this study was to assess the number of brown hare leverets admitted to rescue centres in the Czech Republic in the period from 2010 to 2019, the causes of their admission to rescue centres and their outcomes. Results We evaluated the number of brown hare leverets admitted to rescue centres in the Czech Republic in the period from 2010 to 2019 and the outcomes associated with their leaving these rescue centres. We found that the number of brown hare leverets admitted increased during the monitored period (rSp = 0.6364, p < 0.05). The most frequent reasons for admission were the admission of orphaned young (49.15%), leverets brought needlessly (19.60%) and leverets that had been bitten by other animals (18.63%). More (p < 0.05) young admitted to rescue centres died (40.76%) than were reared successfully and released back into the wild (32.40%). Leverets that had been caught needlessly or orphaned and late-born leverets survived and could be released back into the wild (38.56, 34.51 and 52%, respectively), while fatalities were recorded in most leverets bitten by another animal (65.05%) or hit in a collision with a vehicle (97.06%). Most young hares (76.92%) that were exhausted or starved at the time of admission could not be saved. Conclusions Since only a small proportion of hares in a litter survive until adulthood in the wild, young animals being found and taken needlessly to rescue centres may harm the hare population. Our results show that only around one in three healthy young hares admitted to rescue centres are reared successfully. It is, in our opinion, of fundamental importance to the protection of brown hare leverets to inform the public of this issue and prevent needless interventions into natural rearing in the wild.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Luis Fernando Valenzuela-Moreno ◽  
Sara Teresa Méndez-Cruz ◽  
Claudia Patricia Rico-Torres ◽  
Carlos Cedillo-Peláez ◽  
Dolores Correa ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Currently, more than 300 genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) have been described throughout the world, demonstrating its wide genetic diversity. The SAG3 locus is one of the genes included in the genotyping panel of this parasite. It is associated with its virulence since it participates during the invasion process of the host cells. Therefore, cloning, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis were used to deepen the understanding of the SAG3 locus genetic diversity of T. gondii in blood samples from feral cats. Results Six different SAG3 sequences were detected, five of which were detected in one feline. Three sequences were first reported here; one of them was an intragenic recombinant. In the cladogram, four out of ten SAG3 sequences did not share nodes with others reported worldwide. Conclusions Cloning and sequencing of samples with more than one restriction pattern by PCR-RFLP were very helpful tools to demonstrate the presence of more than three genotypes of T. gondii in the blood of feral cats from southeastern Mexico. This suggests a potential mixed infection of multiple T. gondii strains and high genetic diversity of the parasites in felines in this tropical region of Mexico.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jie Pei ◽  
Rende Song ◽  
Pengjia Bao ◽  
Mancai Yin ◽  
Jiye Li ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Ovarian follicle fluid (FF) as a microenvironment surrounding oocyte plays critical roles in physio-biochemical processes of follicle development and oocyte maturation. It is hypothesized that proteins in yak FF participate in the physio-biochemical pathways. The primary aims of this study were to find differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between mature and immature FF, and to elucidating functions of the mature and immature FF in yak. Results The mature and immature FF samples were obtained from three healthy yaks that were nonpregnant, aged from four to five years, and free from any anatomical reproductive disorders. The FF samples were subjected to mass spectrometry with the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). The FF samples went through correlation analysis, principle component analysis, and expression pattern analysis based on quantification of the identified proteins. Four hundred sixty-three DEPs between mature and immature FF were identified. The DEPs between the mature and immature FF samples underwent gene ontology (GO), Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis. The DEPs highly expressed in the mature FF mainly took parts in the complement and coagulation cascades, defense response, acute-phase response, response to other organism pathways to avoid invasion of exogenous microorganisms. The complement activation pathway contains eight DEPs, namely C2, C5, C6, C7, C9, C4BPA, CFH, and MBL2. The three DEPs, CATHL4, CHGA, and PGLYRP1, take parts in defense response pathway to prevent invasion of exogenetic microorganism. The coagulation cascades pathway involves many coagulation factors, such as F7, F13A1, FGA, FGB, FGG, KLKB1, KNG1, MASP1, SERPINA1, and SERPIND1. While the DEPs highly expressed in the immature FF participated in protein translation, peptide biosynthetic process, DNA conformation change, and DNA geometric change pathways to facilitate follicle development. The translation pathway contains many ribosomal proteins, such as RPL3, RPL5, RPS3, RPS6, and other translation factors, such as EIF3J, EIF4G2, ETF1, MOV10, and NARS. The DNA conformation change and DNA geometric change involve nine DEPs, DDX1, G3BP1, HMGB1, HMGB2, HMGB3, MCM3, MCM5, MCM6, and RUVBL2. Furthermore, the expressed levels of the main DEPs, C2 and SERPIND1, were confirmed by western blot. Conclusions The differential proteomics revealed the up-regulated DEPs in mature FF take parts in immunoreaction to prevent invasion of microorganisms and the up-regulated DEPs in immature FF participate in protein synthesis, which may improve our knowledge of the follicular microenvironment and its biological roles for reproductive processes in yak. The DEPs, C2 and SERPIND1, can be considered as protein markers for mature yak follicle.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Moru Xu ◽  
Fusen Hang ◽  
Kun Qian ◽  
Hongxia Shao ◽  
Jianqiang Ye ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncovirus which can induce multiple types of tumors in chicken. In this report, we found novel ALV-J infection is closely associated with serious hepatomegaly and splenomegaly in chicken. Case presentation The layer chickens from six flocks in Jiangsu province, China, showed serious hemoperitoneum, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Histopathological results indicated focal lymphocytic infiltration, cell edema and congestion in the liver, atrophy and depletion of lymphocyte in the spleen. Tumor cells were not detected in all the organs. avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV), which is thought to be the cause of a very similar disease, big liver and spleen disease (BLS), was not detected. Other viruses causing tumors or liver damage including Marek’s disease virus (MDV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), fowl adenovirus (FAdV) and chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) were also proved negative by either PCR or RT-PCR. However, we did detect ALV-J in those chickens using PCR. Only novel ALV-J strains were efficiently isolated from these chicken livers. Conclusions This is the first report that chicken hepatomegaly and splenomegaly disease was closely associated with novel ALV-J, highlighting the importance of ALV-J eradication program in China.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Eun-Ha Kang ◽  
Seol-Hee Park ◽  
Ye-In Oh ◽  
Kyoung-Won Seo

Abstract Background The use of salivary biomarkers has garnered attention because the composition of saliva reflects the body’s physiological state. Saliva contains a wide range of components, including peptides, nucleic acids, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. It has been reported that salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol are biomarkers of stress related biomarker in diseased dogs; however, evaluation of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol pre- and post- operation has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol levels in dogs before and after they underwent surgery and investigate the association between the salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol activity and pain intensity. For this purpose, a total of 35 dogs with disease-related pain undergoing orthopedic and soft tissue surgeries were recruited. Alpha-amylase and cortisol levels in the dogs’ saliva and serum were measured for each using a commercially available canine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and physical examinations (measurement of heart rate and blood pressure) were performed. In addition, the dogs’ pre- and post-operative pain scores determined using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (CMPS-SF) were evaluated. Results After surgery, there was a significant decrease in the dogs’ pain scores (0.4-fold for the CMPS-SF, p < 0.001) and serum cortisol levels (0.73-fold, p < 0.01). Based on their pre-operative CMPS-SF scores, the dogs were included in either a high-pain-score group or a low-pain-score group. After the dogs in the high-pain-score group underwent surgical intervention, there was a significant decrease in their CMPS-SF scores and levels of salivary alpha-amylase, serum alpha-amylase, and serum cortisol. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between salivary alpha-amylase levels and CMPS-SF scores in both the high- and low-pain-score groups. Conclusions The measurement of salivary alpha amylase can be considered an important non-invasive tool for the evaluation of pain-related stress in dogs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hasan Ongor ◽  
Necati Timurkaan ◽  
Hasan Abayli ◽  
Burak Karabulut ◽  
Hakan Kalender ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2, MDV-1), which primarily affects chickens. However, the virus is also able to induce tumors and polyneuritis in turkeys, albeit less frequently than in chickens. Results This is the first study in Turkey reporting the molecular characterization of a MDV-1 strain detected in a flock of backyard turkeys exhibiting visceral lymphoma. Here, MEQ, vIL-8, pp38 and 132-bp tandem repeat regions, which are frequently preferred in the pathotyping of MDV-1, were examined. It was determined that the MEQ gene of MDV-1/TR-21/turkey strain obtained in the present study encoded 339 amino acids (1020 nt) and had four proline-rich repeat regions (PPPP). Based on the nucleotide sequence of the MEQ gene of the MDV-1/TR-21/turkey strain, a phylogenetic tree was created using the MEGA-X software with the Maximum Likelihood Method (in 1000 replicates). Our strain was highly identical (> 99.8) to the Italian/Ck/625/16, Polish (Polen5) and some Turkish (Layer-GaHV-2-02-TR-2017, Tr/MDV-1/19) MDV-1 strains. Also, nt and aa sequences of the MEQ gene of our strain were 99.1 and 99.41% identical to another Turkish strain (MDV/Tur/2019) originated from chickens. Sequence analysis of pp38 and vIL-8 genes also supported the above finding. The identity ratios of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of vIL-8 and pp38 genes of MDV-1/TR-21/turkey strain were 99.64–100% and 99.79–100%, respectively, when compared with those of the Polish strain. According to 132-bp tandem repeat PCR results, the MDV-1/TR-21/turkey strain had five copies. Conclusions These results suggested that the MDV-1/TR-21/turkey strain obtained from backyard turkeys can be either very virulent or very virulent plus pathotype, though experimental inoculation is required for precise pathotyping.


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