autonomous vehicles
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2023 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-36
Yupeng Hu ◽  
Wenxin Kuang ◽  
Zheng Qin ◽  
Kenli Li ◽  
Jiliang Zhang ◽  

In recent years, with rapid technological advancement in both computing hardware and algorithm, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has demonstrated significant advantage over human being in a wide range of fields, such as image recognition, education, autonomous vehicles, finance, and medical diagnosis. However, AI-based systems are generally vulnerable to various security threats throughout the whole process, ranging from the initial data collection and preparation to the training, inference, and final deployment. In an AI-based system, the data collection and pre-processing phase are vulnerable to sensor spoofing attacks and scaling attacks, respectively, while the training and inference phases of the model are subject to poisoning attacks and adversarial attacks, respectively. To address these severe security threats against the AI-based systems, in this article, we review the challenges and recent research advances for security issues in AI, so as to depict an overall blueprint for AI security. More specifically, we first take the lifecycle of an AI-based system as a guide to introduce the security threats that emerge at each stage, which is followed by a detailed summary for corresponding countermeasures. Finally, some of the future challenges and opportunities for the security issues in AI will also be discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Tooska Dargahi ◽  
Hossein Ahmadvand ◽  
Mansour Naser Alraja ◽  
Chia-Mu Yu

Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) are introduced to improve individuals’ quality of life by offering a wide range of services. They collect a huge amount of data and exchange them with each other and the infrastructure. The collected data usually includes sensitive information about the users and the surrounding environment. Therefore, data security and privacy are among the main challenges in this industry. Blockchain, an emerging distributed ledger, has been considered by the research community as a potential solution for enhancing data security, integrity, and transparency in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). However, despite the emphasis of governments on the transparency of personal data protection practices, CAV stakeholders have not been successful in communicating appropriate information with the end users regarding the procedure of collecting, storing, and processing their personal data, as well as the data ownership. This article provides a vision of the opportunities and challenges of adopting blockchain in ITS from the “data transparency” and “privacy” perspective. The main aim is to answer the following questions: (1) Considering the amount of personal data collected by the CAVs, such as location, how would the integration of blockchain technology affect transparency , fairness , and lawfulness of personal data processing concerning the data subjects (as this is one of the main principles in the existing data protection regulations)? (2) How can the trade-off between transparency and privacy be addressed in blockchain-based ITS use cases?

Isaac Oyeyemi Olayode ◽  
Alessandro Severino ◽  
Tiziana Campisi ◽  
Lagouge Kwanda Tartibu

In the last decades, the Italian road transport system has been characterized by severe and consistent traffic congestion and in particular Rome is one of the Italian cities most affected by this problem. In this study, a LevenbergMarquardt (LM) artificial neural network heuristic model was used to predict the traffic flow of non-autonomous vehicles. Traffic datasets were collected using both inductive loop detectors and video cameras as acquisition systems and selecting some parameters including vehicle speed, time of day, traffic volume and number of vehicles. The model showed a training, test and regression value (R2) of 0.99892, 0.99615 and 0.99714 respectively. The results of this research add to the growing body of literature on traffic flow modelling and help urban planners and traffic managers in terms of the traffic control and the provision of convenient travel routes for pedestrians and motorists.

2022 ◽  
Vol 33 (1) ◽  
pp. 100426
Artur Modliński ◽  
Emilian Gwiaździński ◽  
Małgorzata Karpińska-Krakowiak

2022 ◽  
Vol 166 ◽  
pp. 106566
Zhigui Chen ◽  
Xuesong Wang ◽  
Qiming Guo ◽  
Andrew Tarko

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-29
Michael I.-C. Wang ◽  
Charles H.-P. Wen ◽  
H. Jonathan Chao

The recent emergence of Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) enables the Autonomous Intersection Management (AIM) system, replacing traffic signals and human driving operations for improved safety and road efficiency. When CAVs approach an intersection, AIM schedules their intersection usage in a collision-free manner while minimizing their waiting times. In practice, however, there are pedestrian road-crossing requests and spillback problems, a blockage caused by the congestion of the downstream intersection when the traffic load exceeds the road capacity. As a result, collisions occur when CAVs ignore pedestrians or are forced to the congested road. In this article, we present a cooperative AIM system, named Roadrunner+ , which simultaneously considers CAVs, pedestrians, and upstream/downstream intersections for spillback handling, collision avoidance, and efficient CAV controls. The performance of Roadrunner+ is evaluated with the SUMO microscopic simulator. Our experimental results show that Roadrunner+ has 15.16% higher throughput than other AIM systems and 102.53% higher throughput than traditional traffic signals. Roadrunner+ also reduces 75.62% traveling delay compared to other AIM systems. Moreover, the results show that CAVs in Roadrunner+ save up to 7.64% in fuel consumption, and all the collisions caused by spillback are prevented in Roadrunner+.

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