In recent years, with rapid technological advancement in both computing hardware and algorithm, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has demonstrated significant advantage over human being in a wide range of fields, such as image recognition, education, autonomous vehicles, finance, and medical diagnosis. However, AI-based systems are generally vulnerable to various security threats throughout the whole process, ranging from the initial data collection and preparation to the training, inference, and final deployment. In an AI-based system, the data collection and pre-processing phase are vulnerable to sensor spoofing attacks and scaling attacks, respectively, while the training and inference phases of the model are subject to poisoning attacks and adversarial attacks, respectively. To address these severe security threats against the AI-based systems, in this article, we review the challenges and recent research advances for security issues in AI, so as to depict an overall blueprint for AI security. More specifically, we first take the lifecycle of an AI-based system as a guide to introduce the security threats that emerge at each stage, which is followed by a detailed summary for corresponding countermeasures. Finally, some of the future challenges and opportunities for the security issues in AI will also be discussed.
Face super-resolution (FSR), also known as face hallucination, which is aimed at enhancing the resolution of low-resolution (LR) face images to generate high-resolution face images, is a domain-specific image super-resolution problem. Recently, FSR has received considerable attention and witnessed dazzling advances with the development of deep learning techniques. To date, few summaries of the studies on the deep learning-based FSR are available. In this survey, we present a comprehensive review of deep learning-based FSR methods in a systematic manner. First, we summarize the problem formulation of FSR and introduce popular assessment metrics and loss functions. Second, we elaborate on the facial characteristics and popular datasets used in FSR. Third, we roughly categorize existing methods according to the utilization of facial characteristics. In each category, we start with a general description of design principles, present an overview of representative approaches, and then discuss the pros and cons among them. Fourth, we evaluate the performance of some state-of-the-art methods. Fifth, joint FSR and other tasks, and FSR-related applications are roughly introduced. Finally, we envision the prospects of further technological advancement in this field.
Tendon injuries are at the frontier of innovative approaches to public health concerns and sectoral policy objectives. Indeed, these injuries remain difficult to manage due to tendon’s poor healing ability ascribable to a hypo-cellularity and low vascularity, leading to the formation of a fibrotic tissue affecting its functionality. Tissue engineering represents a promising solution for the regeneration of damaged tendons with the aim to stimulate tissue regeneration or to produce functional implantable biomaterials. However, any technological advancement must take into consideration the role of the immune system in tissue regeneration and the potential of biomaterial scaffolds to control the immune signaling, creating a pro-regenerative environment. In this context, immunoengineering has emerged as a new discipline, developing innovative strategies for tendon injuries. It aims at designing scaffolds, in combination with engineered bioactive molecules and/or stem cells, able to modulate the interaction between the transplanted biomaterial-scaffold and the host tissue allowing a pro-regenerative immune response, therefore hindering fibrosis occurrence at the injury site and guiding tendon regeneration. Thus, this review is aimed at giving an overview on the role exerted from different tissue engineering actors in leading immunoregeneration by crosstalking with stem and immune cells to generate new paradigms in designing regenerative medicine approaches for tendon injuries.
Human beings for their self-centeredness, warmth, and leisure in their life, have chosen the avenue of globalization, technological advancement, and industrialization. The price that they are paying for this avenue is the catastrophe of biodiversity, climatic changes, global warming, depleting resources, melting of glaciers, and the catastrophe of greenery. Hence environmental sustainability and sustainable development have turned into a crucial agenda in the global association. India is a rapidly flourishing nation which is backed by the industrial sectors, yet it is exposed terribly to climatic change and global warming. Due to this alarming plight, the banking sectors who are the chief financial supporter of industries that cause pollution have taken a small start: Going Green. This has given push up to the conception of green banking and it has given birth to green banking products. The green banking products target cutback of carbon impression, resource-efficient economies, and ward off wastage of the accessible limited resources. It is focused upon moving towards banking practices that are non-hazardous to the environment and aids to conserve it. These green banking products initiatives have recently kick-started in a handful of banks across the country. Fueling of green products is required at a quick pace than anticipated, as they have a close association with other sectors that forms the country’s economy. This paper skates through the Need of the Hour and the awareness on Green Banking Products.
This review uses a more holistic approach to provide comprehensive information and up-to-date knowledge on solar energy development in India and scientific and technological advancement. This review describes the types of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, existing solar technologies, and the structure of PV systems. Substantial emphasis has been given to understanding the potential impacts of COVID-19 on the solar energy installed capacity. In addition, we evaluated the prospects of solar energy and the revival of growth in solar energy installation post-COVID-19. Further, we described the challenges caused by transitions and cloud enhancement on smaller and larger PV systems on the solar power amended grid-system. While the review is focused on evaluating the solar energy growth in India, we used a broader approach to compare the existing solar technologies available across the world. The need for recycling waste from solar energy systems has been emphasized. Improved PV cell efficiencies and trends in cost reductions have been provided to understand the overall growth of solar-based energy production. Further, to understand the existing technologies used in PV cell production, we have reviewed monocrystalline and polycrystalline cell structures and their limitations. In terms of solar energy production and the application of various solar technologies, we have used the latest available literature to cover stand-alone PV and on-grid PV systems. More than 5000 trillion kWh/year solar energy incidents over India are estimated, with most parts receiving 4–7 kWh/m2. Currently, energy consumption in India is about 1.13 trillion kWh/year, and production is about 1.38 trillion kWh/year, which indicates production capacities are slightly higher than actual demand. Out of a total of 100 GW of installed renewable energy capacity, the existing solar capacity in India is about 40 GW. Over the past ten years, the solar energy production capacity has increased by over 24,000%. By 2030, the total renewable energy capacity is expected to be 450 GW, and solar energy is likely to play a crucial role (over 60%). In the wake of the increased emphasis on solar energy and the substantial impacts of COVID-19 on solar energy installations, this review provides the most updated and comprehensive information on the current solar energy systems, available technologies, growth potential, prospect of solar energy, and need for growth in the solar waste recycling industry. We expect the analysis and evaluation of technologies provided here will add to the existing literature to benefit stakeholders, scientists, and policymakers.
Technological advancement in the 21st century has unlocked possibilities in all spheres of existence. Lately, with the advent of the Covid-19 pandemic, the workplace has been transformed, and businesses are operating in unchartered waters. A human resource management information system is believed to guarantee a more efficient and effective way of managing human capital in organizations. However, its implementation has not effectively transformed from the manual method of running the human resource functions. Many organizations are, therefore, still stuck with the traditional way of managing human capital. On this basis, this study sought to establish the effectiveness of recruitment information systems in human capital management. The study was anchored on the resource-based theory of the firm and used a cross-sectional research design with a target population of 458 employees. A sample size of 213 respondents was determined while stratified and simple random sampling techniques were adopted to select the respondents for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain primary data from the respondents. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested through a pilot study where an average Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.89 was obtained. The validity of the questionnaire was ensured by doing a detailed literature review and consultation with subject experts. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were used to summarize data, while correlation analysis was used to test the study's hypothesis. Results were presented using tables. The findings established that recruitment information systems had a strong positive relationship (R = 0.873, β1 = 0.518, R2 = 0.762, p = 0.05) with human capital management, indicating that James Finlay Limited should invest more in Recruitment information systems. The study recommended that the company improve the recruitment information system to enhance the job interview process and improve the system to allow efficiency in tracking job applications and appointment processes.
Previous studies have underlined various rationales for production fragmentation from wage differentials, decreased trade costs, access to specialized skills and resources, access to new markets, and benevolent government policies, to technological advancement. However, the idea that a firm’s financing structure can influence its production structure remains less explored, more so empirically. Firms that are financially constrained find it difficult to complete the entire production process in-house and therefore tend to resort to production fragmentation. The current study investigates this link between the extent of credit constraints faced by firms and their outsourcing behavior using data from Indian manufacturing firms over a period of ten years. We also separately study this linkage for firms that tend to export more vis-à-vis firms that export less, to ascertain if increased exporting have relaxed the financial constraint of the firms. The results confirm the positive effect of credit constraints on outsourcing behavior. For a robustness check, subsample regressions and alternative measures of constraints are also analyzed. The study has important policy implications for developing countries such as India, where outsourcing may prove to be a profitable reorganization strategy for firms that are financially constrained.
The article examines the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs). This link is conceptually and contextually analyzed in the global context whereby scholarly opinions and research works are discussed to substantiate the role that ICT can play in achieving SDGs. The article further examines the link in South Africa, using the country as a locus of the study. The article aims to find answers to the following research questions: How is ICT linked to all 17 SDGs? To what extent this link may accelerate SDGs’ implementation? What is the impact of ICT on accelerating SDGs? What are the challenges hampering the efficient utilization of ICT for SDGs’ implementation? The article uses a qualitative approach with desktop analysis to draw significant information. In addition, unobtrusive methods were applied, such as conceptual analysis and document analysis, to draw conclusions based on the findings. The findings confirm that despite ICT policies and infrastructure, the use and impact of ICT on SDGs is not always high. The article suggests that improvements are required at policy, institutional, department and individual levels. The suggestions can be applicable globally, based on the technological advancement and socio-economic development in country-specific contexts.
Accessing the world's oceans is essential for monitoring and sustainable management of the maritime domain. Difficulty in reaching remote locations has resulted in sparse coverage, undermining our capacity to deter illegal activities and gather data for physical and biological processes. Uncrewed Surface Vessels (USVs) have existed for over two decades and offer the potential to overcome difficulties associated with monitoring and surveillance in remote regions. However, they are not yet an integral component of maritime infrastructure. We analyse 15 years of non-autonomous and semi-autonomous USV-related literature to determine the factors limiting technological diffusion into everyday maritime operations. We systematically categorised over 1,000 USV-related publications to determine how government, academia and industry sectors use USVs and what drives their uptake. We found a striking overlap between these sectors for 11 applications and nine drivers. Low cost was a consistent and central driver for USV uptake across the three sectors. Product ‘compatibility' and lack of ‘complexity' appear to be major factors limiting USV technological diffusion amongst early adopters. We found that the majority (21 of 27) of commercially available USVs lacked the complexity required for multiple applications in beyond the horizon operations. We argue that the best value for money to advance USV uptake is for designs that offer cross-disciplinary applications and the ability to operate in an unsheltered open ocean without an escort or mothership. The benefits from this technological advancement can excel under existing collaborative governance frameworks and are most significant for remote and developing maritime nations.