Confusion Assessment Method
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Simone Brefka ◽  
Gerhard Wilhelm Eschweiler ◽  
Dhayana Dallmeier ◽  
Michael Denkinger ◽  
Christoph Leinert

Abstract Background Delirium is a frequent psychopathological syndrome in geriatric patients. It is sometimes the only symptom of acute illness and bears a high risk for complications. Therefore, feasible assessments are needed for delirium detection. Objective and methods Rapid review of available delirium assessments based on a current Medline search and cross-reference check with a special focus on those implemented in acute care hospital settings. Results A total of 75 delirium detection tools were identified. Many focused on inattention as well as acute onset and/or fluctuating course of cognitive changes as key features for delirium. A range of assessments are based on the confusion assessment method (CAM) that has been adapted for various clinical settings. The need for a collateral history, time resources and staff training are major challenges in delirium assessment. Latest tests address these through a two-step approach, such as the ultrabrief (UB) CAM or by optional assessment of temporal aspects of cognitive changes (4 As test, 4AT). Most delirium screening assessments are validated for patient interviews, some are suitable for monitoring delirium symptoms over time or diagnosing delirium based on collateral history only. Conclusion Besides the CAM the 4AT has become well-established in acute care because of its good psychometric properties and practicability. There are several other instruments extending and improving the possibilities of delirium detection in different clinical settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yu-Mei Liu ◽  
Hui Huang ◽  
Jie Gao ◽  
Jian Zhou ◽  
Hai-Chen Chu

This study aimed to determine the relationship between hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and post-operative delirium (POD) in elderly patients undergoing femoral neck fracture (FNF) surgery and to investigate whether the change in Hb concentration is associated with POD and the risk factors for POD. A total of 889 patients admitted with FNF between January 2016 and December 2020 were enrolled in this single-center, retrospective, case–control study. Hb concentrations were determined at admission and post-operative day 1 and the change in Hb concentration was defined as the absolute value of difference in pre-operative and post-operative Hb concentration. POD was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or the Confusion Assessment Method once a daily after surgery. The logistic regression analysis was performed for statistical analysis. In total, 172 (19.3%) patients developed POD and 151 (87.8%) patients developed POD within post-operative 3 days. Low pre-operative Hb concentration [p = 0.026, odds ratio (OR) = 0.978] and significant change in Hb concentration (p = 0.006, OR = 1.033) were significantly associated with POD. After excluding change in Hb concentration or pre-operative Hb concentration, neither of them was significantly associated with POD (p > 0.05). The interaction analysis of change in Hb concentration and pre-operative Hb concentration in the logistic regression model was negative. There was no significant relationship between post-operative Hb concentration and POD. Age (p < 0.001, OR = 1.072), stroke history (p = 0.003, OR = 2.489), post-operative ICU transfer (p = 0.007, OR = 1.981), and visual analog scale score within post-operative 2 days (p1 = 0.016 and p2 = 0.006) were independently associated with POD in the logistic regression analysis. Patients with low pre-operative Hb concentrations and high changes in Hb concentration seem to have an increased risk of POD and should receive more attention. Old age, stroke history, post-operative ICU transfer, and pain within post-operative 2 days were significantly associated with POD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 73-76
Liron Sinvani ◽  
Craig Hertz ◽  
Saurabh Chandra ◽  
Anum Ilyas ◽  
Suzanne Ardito ◽  

Background Delirium affects up to 80% of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) but is missed in up to 75% of cases. Telehealth in the ICU (tele-ICU) has become the standard for providing timely, expert care to remotely located ICUs. Objectives This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of using tele-ICU to increase the accuracy of delirium screening and recognition by ICU nurses. Methods The pilot sites included 4 ICUs across 3 hospitals. A geriatrician with delirium expertise remotely observed 13 bedside ICU nurses administering the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) to patients in real time via the tele-ICU platform and subsequently provided training on CAM-ICU performance and delirium management. Training evaluation consisted of a validated spot check form, a 2-item satisfaction/change-of-practice survey, and a qualitative question on acceptability. Results Thirteen ICU nurses were observed performing 26 bedside delirium assessments. The top observed barriers to accurate delirium screening were CAM-ICU knowledge deficits, establishment of baseline cognition, and inappropriate use of the “unable to assess” designation. The mean percentage of correct observations improved from 40% (first observation) to 90% (second observation) (P < .001). All 13 nurses strongly agreed that the training was beneficial and practice changing. Conclusions The use of tele-ICU to improve the accuracy of delirium screening by ICU nurses appears to be feasible and efficient for leveraging delirium expertise across multiple ICUs. Future studies should evaluate the effects of tele-ICU delirium training on patient-centered outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Jian Shi ◽  
Shiyu Zhou ◽  
Kerong Chen ◽  
Xingui Dai ◽  
Lulan Li ◽  

Abstract BackgroundIt is controversial whether statin therapy is beneficial for sepsis patients. A large retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the association between statin therapy and mortality in sepsis patients.MethodsAdult (≥18 years) sepsis patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: the statin group and the no-statin group. Data including demographic features, vital signs, laboratory tests, and comorbidities from MIMIC-IV v1.0 were extracted. Delirium was assessed via the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Ninety-day mortality, 28-day mortality and the incidence of delirium after statin therapy were evaluated using multivariable logistic analysis, the PSM model and subgroup analysis based on univariate analysis. ResultsIn univariate analysis and multivariable logistic analysis, statin therapy showed a significant association with both reduced 28-day and 90-day mortality (90-day mortality: OR 0.58, 95% CI: 0.46-0.72, p<0.001; 28-day mortality: OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37-0.60, p<0.001), while no relationship was found between statin therapy and delirium (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.49-1.72, p=0.787). In further PSM model and subgroup analyses or sensitivity analysis, consistent results were shown. ConclusionStatin therapy is significantly associated with 28-day and 90-day mortality without decrease in the incidence of delirium.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Edwar Pinzón-Casas ◽  
Maira Soto-Trujillo ◽  
Laura Camargo-Agón ◽  
Ángela Henao-Castaño ◽  
Nathalie Gualdrón ◽  

Objective: The goal of the present study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation and clinical validation of the Preschool Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit–Spanish (psCAM-ICU-S) for its clinical use in the Colombian Population.Methods: We designed a Cross-cultural adaptation study followed by a cross-sectional validation study at a Single-center Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at a University Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. The study population was children aged from 6 months to 5 years and 11 months who had been treated in the PICU with a Richmond sedation-agitation scale score of−3 or higher. A three-phase study was carried out. The first phase comprised the application of psychometric tests on the tool. In the second phase, the psCAM-ICU-S was applied to the target population. Patients were evaluated by a nurse and a pediatric intensivist using the psCAM-ICU-S; additionally, a child psychiatrist evaluated each patient using the DSM-V criteria; the psychiatrist evaluation was chosen as the gold standard for the diagnosis of delirium. In the third phase, an evaluation of the tool's effectiveness was carried out by using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and likelihood ratios. Interrater agreement was also assessed by using the Fleiss' kappa.Results: Psychometric tests established the instrument's reliability and consistency as well as the clarity of its items. A total of 31 patients were evaluated. On average, the instrument presented a sensitivity of 93.3%, specificity of 94.8%, PPV 78%, NPV 99%, a positive likelihood ratio of 19.93, and a negative ratio of 0.07. The prevalence of delirium was 16.1% by the child psychiatrist and 25.8% using de psCAM-ICU-S. We confirmed high Interrater agreement, Kappa index (0.672–0.902).Conclusions: The psCAM-ICU-S was a valid and reliable instrument for the diagnosis of delirium in critically ill pediatric patients.

2021 ◽  
Jun Yong An ◽  
Jin Young Park ◽  
Jaehwa Cho ◽  
Hesun Erin Kim ◽  
Jaesub Park ◽  

Abstract Background There have been few earlier studies on the efficacy of statins in the prevention of delirium. However, the results were controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the use of statins and the occurrence of delirium in a large cohort of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), considering disease severity and statin properties, which were not sufficiently considered in the previous works. Methods We obtained clinical and demographical information from 3604 patients admitted to the ICU of Gangnam Severance Hospital from January 2013 to April 2020. This included information on daily statin use and delirium state, as assessed by the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting and categorized the ICU patients into four groups based on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (group 1: 0-10 - mild; group 2: 11-20 – mild to moderate; group 3: 21-30 – moderate to severe; group 4: > 30 - severe). We analyzed the association between the use of statin and the occurrence of delirium in each group, while taking into account the properties of statins. Results Comparisons between statin and non-statin patient groups revealed that only in group 2, patients who were administered statin showed significantly higher occurrence of delirium (p=0.004, odds ratio [OR]=1.58) compared to the patients who did not receive statin. Regardless of whether statins were lipophilic (p=0.036, OR=1.47) or hydrophilic (p=0.032, OR=1.84), the occurrence of delirium was higher only in patients from group 2. Although both lipophilic and hydrophilic statins in group 2 were associated with delirium, neither showed a greater association than the other. Conclusions The use of statins may be associated with the increases in the risk of delirium occurrence in patients with mild to moderate disease severity, irrespective of statin properties, as revealed by results from a large cohort study.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0259840
Luis Paixao ◽  
Haoqi Sun ◽  
Jacob Hogan ◽  
Katie Hartnack ◽  
Mike Westmeijer ◽  

Background We investigated the effect of delirium burden in mechanically ventilated patients, beginning in the ICU and continuing throughout hospitalization, on functional neurologic outcomes up to 2.5 years following critical illness. Methods Prospective cohort study of enrolling 178 consecutive mechanically ventilated adult medical and surgical ICU patients between October 2013 and May 2016. Altogether, patients were assessed daily for delirium 2941days using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Hospitalization delirium burden (DB) was quantified as number of hospital days with delirium divided by total days at risk. Survival status up to 2.5 years and neurologic outcomes using the Glasgow Outcome Scale were recorded at discharge 3, 6, and 12 months post-discharge. Results Of 178 patients, 19 (10.7%) were excluded from outcome analyses due to persistent coma. Among the remaining 159, 123 (77.4%) experienced delirium. DB was independently associated with >4-fold increased mortality at 2.5 years following ICU admission (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 4.77; 95% CI, 2.10–10.83; P < .001), and worse neurologic outcome at discharge (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.02; 0.01–0.09; P < .001), 3 (aOR, 0.11; 0.04–0.31; P < .001), 6 (aOR, 0.10; 0.04–0.29; P < .001), and 12 months (aOR, 0.19; 0.07–0.52; P = .001). DB in the ICU alone was not associated with mortality (HR, 1.79; 0.93–3.44; P = .082) and predicted neurologic outcome less strongly than entire hospital stay DB. Similarly, the number of delirium days in the ICU and for whole hospitalization were not associated with mortality (HR, 1.00; 0.93–1.08; P = .917 and HR, 0.98; 0.94–1.03, P = .535) nor with neurological outcomes, except for the association between ICU delirium days and neurological outcome at discharge (OR, 0.90; 0.81–0.99, P = .038). Conclusions Delirium burden throughout hospitalization independently predicts long term neurologic outcomes and death up to 2.5 years after critical illness, and is more predictive than delirium burden in the ICU alone and number of delirium days.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 985-985
Ashley Kuzmik ◽  
John Joseph Hannan ◽  
Long Ngo ◽  
Marie Boltz ◽  
Priyanka Shrestha ◽  

Abstract Systematic screening improves delirium detection among hospitalized older adults. This poster describes the development and pilot testing of an iOS-based app that incorporates the Ultra-Brief Confusion Assessment Method (UB-CAM), a two-step, delirium detection protocol that combines the UB-2 (2-item screener) and 3D-CAM. Previous work tested a RedCAP-based UB-CAM app in 527 patients with 399 physicians, nurses, and certified nursing assistants (CNAs) showing it can be successfully completed by all three disciplines in 97% of eligible patients in 80 seconds on average with over 85% accuracy relative to a gold standard. To improve accessibility to the clinical setting, our research team now collaborated with a computer scientist to develop and refine an iOS-based UB-CAM app for the iPhone and iPad through iterative “laboratory” testing. The app was piloted by non-clinician, research testers in hospitalized older adults (age x̄ =83, SD= 8.0) with dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale x̄ =1.1, SD= .30); 64% were assessed to be delirium positive. The app demonstrated preliminary efficiency (90 seconds on average), high acceptability (100% satisfaction of users), and reliability (100% inter-rater). This project underscores the need for close collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and computer scientists with iterative testing of bedside-facing apps prior to testing with patients. Next steps include testing effectiveness in a pragmatic trial with clinician users (physicians, nurses, CNAs), integrating the UB-CAM app into the routine hospital care of all older patients. Having rapid, accurate bedside delirium detection has the potential to transform care.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 148-148
Robert Dicks ◽  
Jimmy Choi ◽  
Christine Waszynski ◽  
Kadesha Collins-Fletcher ◽  
Beth Taylor ◽  

Abstract Racial and ethnic minority populations in the US experience greater cumulative disease burden, as well as social and economic barriers, stressors, and limited advocacy/access to culturally informed healthcare. This increased risk burden is expected to be associated with an increased risk for delirium during acute care encounters. Previous studies on health disparity and delirium are limited and report equivocal findings regarding delirium incidence, possibly related to sample bias or non-validated measures. Risk for delirium during acute care in health disparity populations (HDP) that include Black African Americans (BAA) and Hispanic-Latinx (HL) has not been systematically studied using validated measures. We conducted a retrospective analysis utilizing our delirium program (ADAPT) registry that systematically assessed all hospitalized patients through their entire hospital stay for the years 2018-2019 (36K patients, 80% NHW, 11% HL, 9% BAA). The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM and CAM-ICU) and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) were used as screening assessments to identify delirium. We know from previous studies that negative CAM results in our environment have high specificity. The incidence of delirium between populations was compared using a chi-square test. Delirium incidence was higher in HDP (BAA combined with HL) compared to NHW in 71-80yo (16.0% vs 12.6%, p=0.003). Delirium incidence was not different in all other age groups compared; &lt;65yo (p=0.191), 61-70yo (p=0.223), 81-90yo (p=0.644). Understanding the association, or lack thereof, between health disparities, ethnic and race-based risks for delirium is expected to provide important insights into more focused delirium assessment, prevention and mitigation strategies in these populations.

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