jumping to conclusions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 24-30
Lida Alkisti Xenaki ◽  
Pentagiotissa Stefanatou ◽  
Eirini Ralli ◽  
Alex Hatzimanolis ◽  
Stefanos Dimitrakopoulos ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261296
Thea Zander-Schellenberg ◽  
Sarah A. K. Kuhn ◽  
Julian Möller ◽  
Andrea H. Meyer ◽  
Christian Huber ◽  

Research suggests that a jumping-to-conclusions (JTC) bias, excessive intuition, and reduced analysis in information processing may favor suboptimal decision-making, both in non-clinical and mentally disordered individuals. The temporal relationship between processing modes and JTC bias, however, remains unexplored. Therefore, using an experience sampling methodology (ESM) approach, this study examines the temporal associations between intuitive/analytical information processing, JTC bias, and delusions in non-clinical individuals and patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, we examine whether a high use of intuitive and/or a low use of analytical processing predicts subsequent JTC bias and paranoid conviction. In a smartphone-based ESM study, participants will be prompted four times per day over three consecutive days to answer questionnaires designed to measure JTC bias, paranoid conviction, and preceding everyday-life intuition/analysis. Our hierarchical data will be analyzed using multilevel modelling for hypothesis testing. Results will further elucidate the role of aberrant human reasoning, particularly intuition, in (non-)clinical delusions and delusion-like experiences, and also inform general information processing models.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. 100212
Seiichi Watanabe ◽  
Takamichi Taniguchi ◽  
Motoko Sugihara

2021 ◽  
Marta Ferrer-Quintero ◽  
Daniel Fernández ◽  
Raquel López-Carrilero ◽  
Irene Birulés ◽  
Ana Barajas ◽  

Abstract Deficits in social cognition and metacognition impact the course of psychosis. Gender differences in social cognition and metacognition could explain heterogeneity in psychosis. 174 (58 females) patients with first-episode psychosis completed a clinical, neuropsychological, social cognitive and metacognitive assessment. Subsequent latent profile analysis split by gender yielded 2 clusters common to both genders, a specific male profile characterized by presenting jumping to conclusions and a specific female profile characterized by cognitive biases. Males and females in the homogeneous profile seem to have a more benign course of illness. Males with jumping to conclusions had more clinical symptoms and more neuropsychological deficits. Females with cognitive biases were younger and had less self-esteem. These results suggest that males and females may benefit from specific targeted treatment and highlights the need to consider gender when planning interventions.

Humanities ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 107
Anton Karl Kozlovic

Inspired by a 1940s short story by Harry Bates, scripted by Edmund H. North, and directed by Robert Wise, The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951) is a science fiction cult classic. Of all its diverse interpretations, a commonly adopted reading influenced by the dawning of the Atomic Age parades it as an anti-nuclear exemplar starring alien emissary Klaatu visiting Earth with his robot companion Gort to (supposedly) suppress humanity’s atomic progress. However, upon a close forensic inspection of the film and commentator comments, this anti-atomic claim is resoundingly rejected. Utilizing humanist film criticism as the guiding analytical lens (i.e., looking inside not outside the frame), plus a selective review of the critical literature, it was demonstrated that: (a) there is a dearth of atomic iconography and dialogue, (b) there is no mention of banning atomic energy or weapons, (c) Earth’s atomics are nascent and not serious threats to the Federation, and (d) Klaatu is not anti-atomic but proudly pro-atomic. Overall, this SF film is strongly pro-nuclear in intention, word, and deed, which was frequently misinterpreted due to faulty film criticism, invented facts, and jumping to conclusions, and thus in need of academic correction. Further research into alien first-contact scenarios, robotic artificial intelligence, and the moral make-up of the SF universe is warranted and long overdue.

2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
pp. 55-71
Mabel Rodriguez ◽  
Petra Šustová

This narrative review describes the most frequently investigated cognitive bias in psychosis – jumping to conclusions. This bias refers to deviance in reasoning, when person reach to the conclusion on the basis of little evidence than it is usual. Experimental studies describe presence of the bias across all psychotic continuum. Jumping to conclusions is most frequently studied in associations with delusions, there are discrepancies between results from metaanalyses and longitudinal studies about the nature of relationship between those two phenomena. Relationship between cognition and this bias remains also unclear. Methodology of measuring this bias is very fragmented, which brings o lots of problems descibed in the article. Last part is dedicated to posibilities and efectivity of metacognitive training, which could lead to decrease in jumping to conclusion and potentially nonfarmacologicaly influence delusion and other positive symptoms.

Heather Thompson-Brenner ◽  
Melanie Smith ◽  
Gayle Brooks ◽  
Dee Ross Franklin ◽  
Hallie Espel-Huynh ◽  

During this session, clients learn about automatic thoughts, which are fast, subjective interpretations of the world. Automatic thoughts are necessary to operate in a complex world, but emotional disorders typically involve negative automatic thoughts about particular situations, emotions, the future, and one’s self. Automatic thoughts influence and are influenced by emotion. There can be more than one interpretation of a situation, and cognitive flexibility involves being able to consider various interpretations. Clients also learn about two thinking traps (jumping to conclusions or probability overestimation, and thinking the worst or catastrophizing) and how these traps can influence thoughts to produce negative emotion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 137 ◽  
pp. 514-520
Aina Sastre-Buades ◽  
Susana Ochoa ◽  
Esther Lorente-Rovira ◽  
Ana Barajas ◽  
Eva Grasa ◽  

2021 ◽  
Justin Sulik ◽  
Robert M Ross ◽  
Ryan Balzan ◽  
Ryan McKay

According to continuum models of psychosis, cognitive biases contribute to delusional ideation in the general population. In a large (N = 1002) pre-registered general population study, we examine key specific predictions of such models; in particular, the hypotheses that delusional ideation in the general population is predicted by the Jumping to Conclusions bias (JTC), Over-adjustment, the Bias Against Disconfirm-ing Evidence (BADE), and the Liberal Acceptance bias (LA). Crucially, we include explicit indices of data quality, and incorporate a new, animated Beads Task which overcomes known problems with this instrument. Our results initially appear to replicate several classic findings concerning the relationships between delusional ideation and the aforementioned cognitive biases: Delusional ideation predicted JTC, overadjustment, and BADE. Importantly, however, we demonstrate that many of these classic findings are either severely diminished — or disappear entirely — when inattentive participants are removed from the analyses. These findings highlight crucial issues that need to be addressed to rigorously test continuum models of psychosis.

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