symptom severity
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 125 ◽  
pp. 107126
Pablo Romero-Sanchiz ◽  
Ioan T. Mahu ◽  
Sean P. Barrett ◽  
Joshua P. Salmon ◽  
Mohammed Al-Hamdani ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 24-30
Lida Alkisti Xenaki ◽  
Pentagiotissa Stefanatou ◽  
Eirini Ralli ◽  
Alex Hatzimanolis ◽  
Stefanos Dimitrakopoulos ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Kate St. Cyr ◽  
Jenny J. W. Liu ◽  
Heidi Cramm ◽  
Anthony Nazarov ◽  
Renee Hunt ◽  

Abstract Background Military-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex diagnosis with non-linear trajectories of coping and recovery. Current approaches to the evaluation of PTSD and treatment discontinuation often rely on biomedical models that dichotomize recovery based on symptom thresholds. This approach may not sufficiently capture the complex lived experiences of Veterans and their families. To explore conceptualizations of recovery, we sought perspectives from Veterans and their partners in a pilot study to understand: 1) how Veterans nearing completion of treatment for military-related PTSD and their partners view recovery; and 2) the experience of progressing through treatment towards recovery. Methods We employed a concurrent mixed methods design. Nine Veterans nearing the end of their treatment at a specialized outpatient mental health clinic completed quantitative self-report tools assessing PTSD and depressive symptom severity, and an individual, semi-structured interview assessing views on their treatment and recovery processes. Veterans’ partners participated in a separate interview to capture views of their partners’ treatment and recovery processes. Descriptive analyses of self-report symptom severity data were interpreted alongside emergent themes arising from inductive content analysis of qualitative interviews. Results While over half of Veterans were considered “recovered” based on quantitative assessments of symptoms, individual reflections of “recovery” were not always aligned with these quantitative assessments. A persistent narrative highlighted by participants was that recovery from military-related PTSD was not viewed as a binary outcome (i.e., recovered vs. not recovered); rather, recovery was seen as a dynamic, non-linear process. Key components of the recovery process identified by participants included a positive therapeutic relationship, social support networks, and a toolkit of adaptive strategies to address PTSD symptoms. Conclusions For participants in our study, recovery was seen as the ability to navigate ongoing issues of symptom management, re-engagement with meaningful roles and social networks, and a readiness for discontinuing intensive, specialized mental health treatment. The findings of this study highlight important considerations in balancing the practical utility of symptom severity assessments with a better understanding of the treatment discontinuation-related needs of Veterans with military-related PTSD and their families, which align with a contemporary biopsychosocial approach to recovery.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Anna C. Makowski ◽  
Olaf von dem Knesebeck

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Lin Ma ◽  
Tengfei Yuan ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Lining Guo ◽  
Dan Zhu ◽  

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that are highly heritable and are associated with impaired dynamic functional connectivity (DFC). However, the molecular mechanisms behind DFC alterations remain largely unknown. Eighty-eight patients with ASDs and 87 demographically matched typical controls (TCs) from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange II database were included in this study. A seed-based sliding window approach was then performed to investigate the DFC changes in each of the 29 seeds in 10 classic resting-state functional networks and the whole brain. Subsequently, the relationships between DFC alterations in patients with ASDs and their symptom severity were assessed. Finally, transcription-neuroimaging association analyses were conducted to explore the molecular mechanisms of DFC disruptions in patients with ASDs. Compared with TCs, patients with ASDs showed significantly increased DFC between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left fusiform/lingual gyrus, between the DLPFC and the superior temporal gyrus, between the right frontal eye field (FEF) and left middle frontal gyrus, between the FEF and the right angular gyrus, and between the left intraparietal sulcus and the right middle temporal gyrus. Moreover, significant relationships between DFC alterations and symptom severity were observed. Furthermore, the genes associated with DFC changes in ASDs were identified by performing gene-wise across-sample spatial correlation analysis between gene expression extracted from six donors’ brain of the Allen Human Brain Atlas and case-control DFC difference. In enrichment analysis, these genes were enriched for processes associated with synaptic signaling and voltage-gated ion channels and calcium pathways; also, these genes were highly expressed in autistic disorder, chronic alcoholic intoxication and several disorders related to depression. These results not only demonstrated higher DFC in patients with ASDs but also provided novel insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these alterations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Meredith Cola ◽  
Lisa D. Yankowitz ◽  
Kimberly Tena ◽  
Alison Russell ◽  
Leila Bateman ◽  

Abstract Background Autistic individuals frequently experience social communication challenges. Girls are diagnosed with autism less often than boys even when their symptoms are equally severe, which may be due to insufficient understanding of the way autism manifests in girls. Differences in the behavioral presentation of autism, including how people talk about social topics, could contribute to these persistent problems with identification. Despite a growing body of research suggesting that autistic girls and boys present distinct symptom profiles in a variety of domains, including social attention, friendships, social motivation, and language, differences in the way that autistic boys and girls communicate verbally are not yet well understood. Closely analyzing boys’ and girls’ socially-focused language during semi-structured clinical assessments could shed light on potential sex differences in the behavioral presentation of autistic individuals that may prove useful for identifying and effectively supporting autistic girls. Here, we compare social word use in verbally fluent autistic girls and boys during the interview sections of the ADOS-2 Module 3 and measure associations with clinical phenotype. Methods School-aged girls and boys with autism (N = 101, 25 females; aged 6–15) were matched on age, IQ, and parent/clinician ratings of autism symptom severity. Our primary analysis compared the number of social words produced by autistic boys and girls (normalized to account for differences in total word production). Social words are words that make reference to other people, including friends and family. Results There was a significant main effect of sex on social word production, such that autistic girls used more social words than autistic boys. To identify the specific types of words driving this effect, additional subcategories of friend and family words were analyzed. There was a significant effect of sex on friend words, with girls using significantly more friend words than boys. However, there was no significant main effect of sex on family words, suggesting that sex differences in social word production may be driven by girls talking more about friends compared to boys, not family. To assess relationships between word use and clinical phenotype, we modeled ADOS-2 Social Affect (SA) scores as a function of social word production. In the overall sample, social word use correlated significantly with ADOS-2 SA scores, indicating that participants who used more social words were rated as less socially impaired by clinicians. However, when examined in each sex separately, this result only held for boys. Limitations This study cannot speak to the ways in which social word use may differ for younger children, adults, or individuals who are not verbally fluent; in addition, there were more autistic boys than girls in our sample, making it difficult to detect small effects. Conclusions Autistic girls used significantly more social words than boys during a diagnostic assessment—despite being matched on age, IQ, and both parent- and clinician-rated autism symptom severity. Sex differences in linguistic markers of social phenotype in autism are especially important in light of the late or missed diagnoses that disproportionately affect autistic girls. Specifically, heightened talk about social topics could complicate autism referral and diagnosis when non-clinician observers expect a male-typical pattern of reduced social focus, which autistic girls may not always exhibit.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Sanam Borji-Navan ◽  
Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi ◽  
Khalil Esmaeilpour ◽  
Mojgan Mirghafourvand ◽  
Ali Ahmadian-Khooinarood

Abstract Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common problem of women of reproductive age, affecting various aspects of their lives. However, limited studies have investigated the effect of internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) on PMS. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether ICBT can reduce symptom severity of women with PMS and improve their quality of life during the perimenstrual and late follicular phases of menstrual cycle. Methods The study included 92 university students aged 18–35 years who had moderate to severe PMS. The participants were allocated into two groups of 46 using block randomization. The intervention group underwent ICBT for two menstrual cycles, while the control group received no intervention. Before and after the intervention, all participants filled the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) for two menstrual cycles and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire—Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) on days 1–2 and 11–13 of the menstrual cycle. Data were analyzed using univariate general linear models. Results Four students in the intervention group were lost to follow-up. Following the intervention, the mean score of total PMS symptoms was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (10.4 vs. 20.2, adjusted difference: − 9.9 [95% CI − 13.3 to − 6.6]), and the score of perimenstrual quality of life was significantly higher (64.2 vs. 50.3, 14.1 [8.5 to 19.8]). However, there was no significant intergroup difference in the late follicular quality of life (68.3 vs. 67.3, 1.9 [− 4.4 to 8.1]). Conclusions The ICBT could reduce the symptom severity of women suffering from PMS while improving their perimenstrual quality of life. However, it had no significant effect on the late follicular quality of life. Therefore, this intervention can be used for women with PMS. Trial registration The Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, Identifier: IRCT20100414003706N34, Registered prospectively on 19 June 2019,

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hao Fong Sit ◽  
Ieng Wai Hong ◽  
Sebastian Burchert ◽  
Elvo Kuai Long Sou ◽  
Mek Wong ◽  

Background: Chinese young adults experience barriers to mental health treatment, including the lack of treatment providers and stigma around treatment seeking. Evidence-based digital mental health interventions are promising and scalable alternatives to face-to-face treatment for this population, but lack rigorous evidence to support scale-up in China.Aim: The study was a feasibility study for a large-scale RCT of Step-by-Step, a behavioral activation-based, mental health intervention to address depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese young adults. It sought to assess feasibility of recruitment and of delivery of Step-by-Step in a University setting, to assess acceptability of the intervention, and to examine potential effectiveness.Method: An uncontrolled, feasibility trial was conducted to assess the feasibility and acceptability of Chinese Step-by-Step for Chinese University students with elevated depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores at or above 10) in Macao, China. Data was collected at two different time points (i.e., baseline and 8-weeks after baseline), administered via questionnaires embedded in an interventional mobile application. Participation rate and dropout rate were measured. Depressive and anxiety symptom severity, well-being, and self-defined stress were assessed. Satisfaction with the program was assessed using qualitative interviews.Results: A total of 173 students were screened, 22.0% (n = 38) were eligible, and 63.2% of them (n = 24) started the intervention. The dropout rate by post-test was 45.8%. Results from completers showed that Step-by-Step was potentially effective in reducing depressive and anxiety symptom severity, and self-defined stress. Students were generally satisfied with the program, but also offered suggestions for continued improvement. Qualitative feedback was reported within the RE-AIM framework, covering recruitment, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Amendments to the program were made according to the feedback (e.g., adding notification for new session, modify the time zone).Conclusion: A minimally guided Step-by-Step protocol and the study procedure were successfully pilot tested for use for Chinese University students. The intervention was acceptable and no adverse events were reported. The results support the potential effectiveness and feasibility of a large-scale evaluation of the program.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document