Abstract Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel, popularly known as jabuticaba, is rich in polyphenols. Phenolic compounds exhibit several biological properties, which reflect on biomarkers such as biochemical parameters. In the present study, we evaluated the plasmatic levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid of Chinese hamsters fed for 45 days with a regular diet or cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with a liquid extract obtained from P. cauliflora fruits residues standardized in ellagic acid and total phenolic compounds. The results showed that the concentrated extract obtained from jabuticaba residues increased the glycemia of animals fed with a regular diet and reduced the plasmatic uric acid levels of animals fed with a cholesterol-enriched diet. Since hyperuricemia is considered to be a significant risk factor of metabolic disorders and the principal pathological basis of gout, the liquid extract from P. cauliflora fruits residues would be a promising candidate as a novel hypouricaemic agent for further investigation.
Background:The prevalence of dyslipidemia among Korean women differs significantly according to menopausal status. This study aimed to identify major dietary patterns among Korean women and examine their associations with the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its components.Methods:This study recruited 6,166 women from the Cancer Screenee Cohort 2007–2019 from the National Cancer Center of Korea. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between dietary patterns and the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its components, including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Stratification analyses were performed for the premenopausal and postmenopausal subgroups.Results:The factor analysis identified three main dietary patterns, including traditional, western, and prudent dietary patterns. Compared with those with the lowest pattern scores, those with the highest pattern scores of the traditional (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.05–1.67) and western (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.11–1.78) diets had a higher prevalence of hyper-LDL cholesterol. When accounting for menopausal status in the analysis, traditional (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.10–1.89) and western (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09–1.88) diets were still associated with hyper-LDL cholesterol in postmenopausal women. Additionally, consumption of a traditional diet was associated with a decreased prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54–0.99), and consumption of a western diet was associated with an increased prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.11–1.79) but a reduced prevalence of hypo-HDL cholesterol (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.36–0.99). However, the prudent dietary pattern was not significantly associated with dyslipidemia and its components in the group of all women or the subgroups according to menopausal status.Conclusion:There were significant associations between the traditional and western dietary patterns and hyper-LDL cholesterol in the entire group and postmenopausal subgroup of women. In the perspective of energy restriction, our findings recommend women not to eat either traditional or western diets excessively or too frequently. Menopause may induce the effect of both the traditional diet on triglyceride reduction and the western diet on increasing total cholesterol.
Background: Our study aimed to assess the relationship between the parameters of the lipid profile, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), anthropometry influence with the severity of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 in women. Material and methods. The study design was a cross-sectional study. The research included 138 women aged 29–82 years who had undergone a new coronavirus infection COVID-19 at least two months ago. Participants were divided into three groups by severity of infection: mild (n = 61), moderate (n = 70) and severe (n = 7). Body mass index, waistline and hip circumference, waistline circumference to hip circumference index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, AIP were calculated. Statistical processing of the obtained results was carried out using the SPSS software package (version 20.0) using the Mann-Whitney test, univariate logistic regression analysis, Pearson chi-squared test. Results. The levels of HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in group 3 compared with the level of HDL-cholesterol in women in group 2 (p2-3 = 0.046). BMI was higher in the moderately severe group compared to the mild one (26.32 [23.305; 30.4] versus 28.78 [24.72; 34.77], p1-2 = 0.026). Hip circumference was higher in patients with severe COVID-19 than in patients with mild course (104 [98; 112] versus 114 [109.5; 126], p1-3 = 0.039), AIP was higher in women with severe course compared to women with moderate and mild course (p1-3 = 0.043, p2-3 = 0.04). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the moderate course of COVID-19 is associated with BMI (OR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.019–1.166, p1-2 = 0.012), and the severe course with WC (OR = 1.041, 95 % CI 1.001–1.084, p1-3 = 0.046), AIP value ≥ 0.11 (OR = 13.824, 95 % CI 1.505–126.964, p1-3 = 0.02; OR = 11,579, 95 % CI 1,266–105,219, p2-3 = 0.03) and HDL level < 40 mg/dl (OR = 14,750, 95 % CI 2,317–93,906, p1-3 = 0.004; OR = 8,000, 95 % CI 1,313– 48,538, p1-3 = 0.024). Conclusion. Patients from the group with moderate and severe course of the new coronavirus infection have higher body mass index, hip circumference, AIP, lower HDL values. The chance of a moderate course of COVID-19 is associated with an increased BMI value, and a severe course with WC, AIP ≥ 0.11 and HDL level < 40 mg/dl.
Aim. To assess the contribution of traditional and socio-economic factors to the development and dynamics of dyslipidemia based on the results of an epidemiological study in a large region of Siberia.Material and methods. Clinical and epidemiological prospective study of the population 35-70 years old was carried out. At the basic stage, 1600 participants were examined, including 1124 women and 476 men, the prospective stage included 807 respondents (the response was 84.1%). A survey was carried out to find out the state of health (presence of diseases, taking medications), socio-economic status (level of education and income, marital status) and the presence of behavioral risk factors (tobacco and alcohol use).Results. The proportion of people with hypercholesterolemia increased 1.2 times, low LDL – 1.1 times, and hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL – 1.7 times. In persons with hypertriglyceridemia, the frequency of detected obesity and hypertension decreased by 7.9% and 4.6%, respectively (p = 0.046). Obesity was associated with an increased risk of developing hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.49, CI: 1.0-2.2), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.14, CI: 1.5-3.0), high LDL cholesterol (OR = 2.16, CI: 1.3-3.6) and low HDL cholesterol (OR = 2.07, CI: 1.5-2.9). The presence of hypertension - with an increased risk of developing hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.19, CI: 1.5-3.1) and low HDL (OR = 2.49, CI: 1.8-3.5). Among people with low HDL levels, the number of smokers and drinkers decreased (by 7.0% and 5.7%, respectively), as well as those with obesity by 8.6%. The prevalence of dyslipidemia increased in all socioeconomic groups.Conclusion. Over 3 years of follow-up, there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of persons with dyslipidemia in all socio-economic groups. There was a significant decrease in such risk factors as obesity, hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption and an increase in the number of respondents taking lipid-lowering therapy.
The prevalence of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) is rising globally, with environmentally induced epigenetic changes suggested to play a role. Few studies have investigated epigenetic associations with CMD risk factors in children from low- and middle-income countries. We sought to identify associations between DNA methylation (DNAm) and CMD risk factors in children from India and The Gambia.
Using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 850 K Beadchip array, we interrogated DNAm in 293 Gambian (7–9 years) and 698 Indian (5–7 years) children. We identified differentially methylated CpGs (dmCpGs) associated with systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol in the Gambian children; and with insulin sensitivity, insulinogenic index and HDL-Cholesterol in the Indian children. There was no overlap of the dmCpGs between the cohorts. Meta-analysis identified dmCpGs associated with insulin secretion and pulse pressure that were different from cohort-specific dmCpGs. Several differentially methylated regions were associated with diastolic blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose, but these did not overlap with the dmCpGs. We identified significant cis-methQTLs at three LDL-Cholesterol-associated dmCpGs in Gambians; however, methylation did not mediate genotype effects on the CMD outcomes.
This study identified cardiometabolic biomarkers associated with differential DNAm in Indian and Gambian children. Most associations were cohort specific, potentially reflecting environmental and ethnic differences.
Nghiên cứu nhằm đánh giá tình trạng dinh dưỡng của các cán bộ thuộc diện Ban thường vụ Tỉnh ủy tỉnh Thái Bình quản lý. Đối tượng được điều tra bao gồm các cán bộ đương chức và các cán bộ đã nghỉ hưu. Thiết kế nghiên cứu mô tả cắt ngang điều tra 800 cán bộ. Đánh giá tình trạng dinh dưỡng bằng chỉ số khối cơ thể (BMI), chỉ số WHR và xét nghiệm định lượng Hemoglobin máu, Albumin huyết thanh, Cholesterol máu, Triglycerid, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol. Kết quả cho thấy tỉ lệ CED chung là 0,6 %. Tỉ lệ thừa cân - béo phì chung là 14,4%, tỷ lệ thừa cân nữ là 7,3% thấp hơn nam là 15,8 %. Tỷ lệ cán bộ có nguy cơ thừa cân, béo phì tính theo chỉ số vòng eo/vòng mông là 43,1%, trong đó cán bộ nữ là 44,5% cao hơn cán bộ nam là 42,8%. Nhóm cán bộ có sức khỏe phân loại B1 cao nhất chiếm tỷ lệ 88,9%, loại A chiếm 7,1%, loại B2 chiếm 3,2%, loại C chiếm 0,8%. Chỉ số Albumin huyết thanh trung bình là 43,6 ± 4,6 g/l; Protein huyết thanh trung bình là 70,0 ± 8,1 g/l, Glucose máu trung bình là 6,7 ± 1,5 mmol/l. Chỉ số Cholesterol máu trung bình là 5,29±0,66 mmol/; chỉ số Triglycerid máu trung bình là 2,26±0,9 mmol/l; chỉ số H-DLC trung bình là 1,96 ± 0,68 (mmol/l). L-DLC là 2,91±0,56 mmol/l.
First-episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with metabolic alterations. However, it is not known if there is heterogeneity in these alterations beyond what might be expected due to normal individual differences, indicative of subgroups of patients at greater vulnerability to metabolic dysregulation.
We employed meta-analysis of variance, indexed using the coefficient of variation ratio (CVR), to compare variability of the following metabolic parameters in antipsychotic naïve FEP and controls: fasting glucose, glucose post-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting insulin, insulin resistance, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Standardised mean difference in metabolic parameters between groups was also calculated; meta-regression analyses examined physiological/demographic/psychopathological moderators of metabolic change.
Twenty-eight studies were analysed (1716 patients, 1893 controls). Variability of fasting glucose [CVR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12–1.55; p = 0.001], glucose post-OGTT (CVR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.10–1.87; p = 0.008), fasting insulin (CVR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.09–1.58; p = 0.01), insulin resistance (CVR = 1.34; 95% CI 1.12–1.60; p = 0.001), HbA1c (CVR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.06–1.27; p < 0.0001), total-cholesterol (CVR = 1.15; 95% CI 1.01–1.31; p = 0.03), LDL-cholesterol (CVR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.09–1.50; p = 0.002), and HDL-cholesterol (CVR = 1.15; 95% CI 1.00–1.31; p < 0.05), but not triglycerides, was greater in patients than controls. Mean glucose, glucose post-OGTT, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and triglycerides were greater in patients; mean total-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were reduced in patients. Increased symptom severity and female sex were associated with worse metabolic outcomes.
Patients with FEP present with greater variability in metabolic parameters relative to controls, consistent with a subgroup of patients with more severe metabolic changes compared to others. Understanding determinants of metabolic variability could help identify patients at-risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Female sex and severe psychopathology are associated with poorer metabolic outcomes, with implications for metabolic monitoring in clinical practice.
The convertase subtilisin/kexin family 1 gene (PCSK1) has been associated in various human genetics studies with a wide spectrum of metabolic phenotypes, including early-onset obesity, hyperphagia, diabetes insipidus, and others. Despite the evident influence of PCSK1 on obesity and the known functions of other PCSKs in lipid metabolism, the role of PCSK1 specifically in lipid and cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. This study evaluated the effect of loss of PCSK1 function on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism in mice.
HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) levels in serum and liver, and the activities of two enzymes (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, LCAT and phospholipid transfer protein, PLTP) were evaluated in 8-week-old mice with a non-synonymous single nucleotide mutation leading to an amino acid substitution in PCSK1, which results in a loss of protein’s function. Mutant mice had similar serum HDL cholesterol concentration but increased levels of serum total and mature APOA1, and LCAT activity in comparison to controls.
This study presents the first evaluation of the role of PCSK1 in HDL metabolism using a loss-of-function mutant mouse model. Further investigations will be needed to determine the underlying molecular mechanism.
Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychosocial work exposure and the presence of biological and imaging biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a sub-cohort of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Psychosocial exposure was evaluated with the job demand–control model, and analysed according to the standard categorization: high strain, active, passive and low strain (reference). Biomarkers (blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, coronary artery calcification (CAC) and metabolic syndrome) were measured, or derived through measurements, from clinical examinations. Gender-specific prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with regression models and adjusted for age, education, smoking, physical activity, general life stress and body mass index (BMI). Results: The analyses included 3882 participants (52.5% women). High strain (high demands–low control) was linked to increased PR for low HDL cholesterol in women, adjusted for all covariates (PR 1.76; 95% CI 1.25–2.48). High strain was also related to moderately increased PR for metabolic syndrome in men, after adjustments for all covariates except BMI (PR 1.25; 95% CI 1.02–1.52). In addition, passive work (low demands–low control) was associated with diastolic hypertension in women (fully adjusted: PR 1.29; 95% CI 1.05–1.59). All relationships between psychosocial factors and LDL cholesterol or CAC (both genders), or hypertension (men), were non-significant. Conclusions: Poor psychosocial job conditions was associated with the presence of low HDL cholesterol and diastolic hypertension in women, and metabolic syndrome in men. These findings contribute to the knowledge of potential pathways between stressful work and coronary heart disease.
To study the possible effects of a dietary intervention with minimal and unprocessed foods, high in natural saturated fats on the lipid profile and body mass index of children.
This study combines three intervention studies; one non-randomized retrospective cohort study and two randomized controlled trials, to a pooled analysis. The intervention group received a dietary intervention of minimal and unprocessed foods for three to six months, consisting of five times per week green vegetables, three times per week beef, daily 200–300 mL whole cow’s milk (3.4% fat) and whole dairy butter (80% fat) on each slice of bread. The control group continued their usual dietary habits. Raw data of the three intervention studies where combined into one single dataset for data analysis, using mixed effects analysis of covariance to test the effects of the dietary advice on the main study outcomes, which are measurements of the lipid profile.
In total, 267 children aged 1 to 16 years were followed. 135 children were included in the intervention group and 139 children in the control group. Characteristics (age, gender and follow-up period) were equally distributed between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group HDL-cholesterol increased significantly from 1.22 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–1.32 to 1.42 mmol/L 95% CI 1.30–1.65 (p = 0.007). The increase over time in HDL cholesterol in the intervention group was significantly different compared to the increase in the control group (from 1.26 mmol/L, 95% CI 1.19–1.35, to 1.30 mmol/L, 95% CI 1.26–1.37) (p = 0.04). Due to the increased HDL concentration in the intervention group, the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio decreased significantly from 3.70 mmol/L, 95% CI 3.38–3.87, to 3.25 mmol/L, 95% CI 2.96–3.31 (p = 0.05).
Consumption of minimal and unprocessed foods (high in natural saturated fats) has favourable effects on HDL cholesterol in children. Therefore, this dietary advice can safely be recommended to children.