neighbourhood characteristics
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 363-374 ◽  
Heike Hanhörster ◽  
Isabel Ramos Lobato ◽  
Sabine Weck

This article takes a nuanced look at the role played by neighbourhood characteristics and local policies in facilitating or limiting the ways in which diversity‐oriented middle‐class families interact and deal with people of lower social classes in mixed‐class inner‐city neighbourhoods. The study draws on interviews and social network analysis conducted in neighbourhoods with different socio‐economic characteristics in the German cities of Hanover and Dusseldorf. A comparative view allows us to analyse how neighbourhood characteristics and local policies influence middle‐classes’ interactions across social boundaries. Our aim is to contribute to ongoing debates on urban policy options: In discussing the conditions encouraging cross‐boundary interactions of specific middle‐class fractions, we argue that the scope of local‐level action is not fully recognized in either policy or academic debates.

2021 ◽  
pp. 095624782110487
Harlan Downs-Tepper ◽  
Anirudh Krishna ◽  
Emily Rains

Taking advantage of our existing dataset of 6,721 slum households in two Indian cities, we undertook six rounds of follow-up phone interviews on the impact of COVID-19 between July and November 2020 with three key informants in each of 40 diverse slums. These cities showed contrasting health effects resulting from the first major wave of the COVID-19 pandemic – no deaths and nearly no illnesses were reported in Patna, while there was widespread low-intensity sickness and a cluster of deaths in Bengaluru. We found no clear pattern in the links between outbreaks and city or neighbourhood characteristics. Livelihood effects, however, were devastating across both cities. All but a few slum dwellers lost their jobs for several months and survived by cutting back on essentials, incurring loans, liquidating assets, and seeking help from neighbours. Government assistance, generous in the early part of the lockdown, dwindled rapidly. Many will likely become chronically poor.

Neeru Gupta ◽  
Dan Lawson Crouse ◽  
Ismael Foroughi ◽  
Thalia Nikolaidou

Background: Little is known about the extent to which socioenvironmental characteristics may influence mental health outcomes in smaller population centres or differently among women and men. This study used a gender-based analysis approach to explore individual- and neighbourhood-level sex differences in mental health service use in a context of uniquely smaller urban and rural settlements. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis leveraged multiple person-based administrative health datasets linked with geospatial datasets among the population aged 1 and over in the province of New Brunswick, Canada. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between neighbourhood characteristics with risk of service contacts for mood and anxiety disorders in 2015/2016, characterizing the areal measures among all residents (gender neutral) and by males and females separately (gender specific), and controlling for age group. Results: Among the province’s 707,575 eligible residents, 10.7% (females: 14.0%; males: 7.3%) used mental health services in the year of observation. In models adjusted for gender-neutral neighbourhood characteristics, service contacts were significantly more likely among persons residing in the most materially deprived areas compared with the least (OR = 1.09 [95% CI: 1.05–1.12]); when stratified by individuals’ sex, the risk pattern held for females (OR = 1.13 [95% CI: 1.09–1.17]) but not males (OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.96–1.05]). Residence in the most female-specific materially deprived neighbourhoods was independently associated with higher risk of mental health service use among individual females (OR = 1.08 [95% CI: 1.02–1.14]) but not among males (OR = 1.02 [95% CI: 0.95–1.10]). Conclusion: These findings emphasize that research needs to better integrate sex and gender in contextual measures aiming to inform community interventions and neighbourhood designs, notably in small urban and rural settings, to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in the burden of mental disorders.

2021 ◽  
Nebechukwu Henry Ugwu ◽  
Clifford Obby Odimegwu

Abstract Background: The relationship between neighbourhood characteristics and youth involvement in risky sexual behaviour such as early sexual debut and multiple sexual partnerships is well established in the literature. However, there are very few empirical studies using Demographic and Health Surveys to unpack the nature of this relationship in Africa. This study aims to identify the neighbourhood characteristics influencing young people's engagement in risky sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses on young people aged 15 to 24 years were conducted using the most recent Demographic and Health Survey Data (DHS 2014-2016) from Ghana, Rwanda, and South Africa to investigate the relationship between neighbourhood characteristics and youth risky sexual behaviour. Results: Individual and, in particular, neighbourhood characteristics (community poverty, community occupation, community media access, and community education) were found to be substantially linked with youth risky sexual behaviour. Conclusion: To lower the incidence of risky sexual behaviour in the community, programs aimed at appropriate policy options must be intensified. Adopting the implications of these findings is critical for a developmental approach aimed at reaching Africa’s long-term development goal of eliminating STIs among young people.

Ineke Vergeer ◽  
Bojana Klepac-Pogrmilovic

Holistic movement practices (HMPs) are an emerging category of physical activity, contributing to the diversification of physical activity opportunities. Purposefully incorporating not only physical but also mental, social, and/or spiritual elements, HMPs have received limited research attention with respect to participation parameters. The purpose of this study was to begin to map HMPs’ participation potential by exploring the provision features of HMPs in Melbourne. Data were collected via internet searches, with a focus on events offered. Event features, including type, cost, duration, venue address, and target groups, were recorded. Associated neighbourhood characteristics were also explored by linking venue locations to selected census information. Provision was documented for Yoga and Pilates in central Melbourne (1011 events), for Tai Chi and Qigong (323 events), and for a range of smaller HMPs (149 events) across Greater Melbourne. Results indicated a wide range in provision features. Affinities with the holistic nature of HMPs were noticeable in venue choices and neighbourhood socio-demographics. Mention of specific target groups was infrequent. Results are discussed in light of implications for uptake. HMPs exemplify the increasing diversity of physical activity opportunities in modern-day societies. Further research to elucidate their place in the landscape of physical activities is warranted.

2021 ◽  
pp. 101535
Tracie A. Barnett ◽  
Gisèle Contreras ◽  
Adrian E. Ghenadenik ◽  
Kristina Zawaly ◽  
Andraea Van Hulst ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Jennifer Dykxhoorn ◽  
Joseph Hayes ◽  
Kavya Ashok ◽  
Alma Sörberg Wallin ◽  
Christina Dalman

Abstract Background Characteristics of the neighbourhood environment, including population density, social fragmentation, and trust, have been linked to mental health outcomes. Using a longitudinal population-based cohort, we explored the relationship between objective and subjective neighbourhood characteristics and the odds of suicidal thoughts and attempts. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of 20764 participants living in Stockholm County who participated in the Stockholm Public Health Survey. We used multilevel modelling to examine if suicidal thoughts and attempts were associated with neighbourhood characteristics, independent of individual associations. We included objective and subjective measures to explore if there was a different relationship between these measures of the neighbourhood environment and suicidality. Results Associations between neighbourhood factors and suicidality were predominantly explained by individual characteristics, with the exception of neighbourhood-level deprivation and average residential trust. Each unit increase of deprivation was linked to increased odds of suicidal thoughts [Odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–1.07] and attempts (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17). Decreasing residential trust was associated with increased odds of suicide attempts (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.17). There was no evidence that neighbourhood-level fragmentation or average trust in public and political institutions had an independent effect on suicidality once individual and sociodemographic factors were accounted for. Conclusions This study showed that much of the neighbourhood-level variation in suicidal thoughts and attempts could be explained by compositional factors, including sociodemographic clustering within neighbourhoods. The independent effect of neighbourhood-level deprivation and average residential trust provide evidence that the neighbourhood context may exert an independent effect on suicidality beyond the impact of individual characteristics.

2021 ◽  
Sanne Muurling ◽  
Tim Riswick ◽  
Katalin Buzasi

The complex relationship between the history of infectious diseases and social inequalities has recently attracted renewed attention. Smallpox has so far largely escaped this revived scholarly scrutiny, despite its century-long status as one of the deadliest and widespread of all infectious diseases. Literature has demonstrated that important differences between rural and urban communities, and between cities, but has so far failed to address disparities within cities due to varying living conditions and disease environments. This article examines the last nationwide upsurge of smallpox in the Netherlands through the lens of Amsterdam’s 50 neighbourhoods in the period 1870-1872. We use a mixed methods approach combining qualitative spatial analysis and OLS regression to investigate which part of the population was affected most by this epidemic in terms of age and sex, geographic distribution across the city, and underlying socio-demographic neighbourhood characteristics such as relative wealth, house density, crude death rate, and birth rate. Our analyses reveal a significant spatial patterning of smallpox mortality that can largely be explained by existing socio-demographic neighbourhood characteristics. The smallpox epidemic was not socially neutral, but lays bare some of the deep-seated social and health inequalities across the city.

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