social inequalities
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 100170
Roberta Fernandes Correia ◽  
Ana Carolina Carioca da Costa ◽  
Daniella Campelo Batalha Cox Moore ◽  
Saint Clair Gomes Junior ◽  
Maria Paula Carneiro de Oliveira ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 91-113
Joshua Page ◽  
Christine S. Scott-Hayward

In this review of scholarship on bail and pretrial justice in the United States, we analyze how the field of bail operates (and why it operates as it does), focusing on its official and unofficial objectives, core assumptions and values, power dynamics, and technologies. The field, we argue, provides extensive opportunities for generating revenue and containing, controlling, and changing defendants and their families. In pursuit of these objectives, actors consistently generate harms that disproportionately affect low-income people of color and amplify social inequalities. We close with an analysis of political struggles over bail, including current and emerging possibilities for both reformist and radical change. In this, we urge scholars toward sustained engagement with people and organizations in criminalized communities, which pushes scholars to reconsider our preconceptions regarding safety, justice, and the potential for systemic change and opens up new avenues for research and public engagement.

Societies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Tor-Ivar Karlsen ◽  
Charlotte Kiland ◽  
Gro Kvåle ◽  
Dag Olaf Torjesen

Building heavily on the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach, Norway implemented the Public Health Act in 2012 to reduce social inequalities in health. Local public health coordinators (PHCs) at municipal levels were seen as tools to provide local intersectoral public health work. In this study, we examine factors related to intersectoral agency and if intersectoral work is understood as relevant to securing social justice in local policy outcomes. A national web-based survey in 2019 of all Norwegian PHCs (n = 428) was conducted with a response rate of 60%. Data were analysed through multiple linear regression, hierarchical regression modelling and structural equation modelling. Neither factors relating to community contexts nor individual characteristics were associated with intersectoral agency. Organisational factors, especially position size, being organised at the top level and having a job description, were significantly associated with perceptions of intersectoral agency. PHCs seeing themselves as intersectoral agents also found themselves able to affect annual budgets and policy outcomes. We conclude that municipal PHC positions can be important HiAP tools in local public health policies. However, organisational factors affect how PHCs perceive their influence and role in the municipal organisation and thereby their possibilities to influence local policymaking through intersectoral agency.

2022 ◽  
Daniela K Schlueter ◽  
Ruth Keogh ◽  
Rhian Daniel ◽  
Schadrac Agbla ◽  
David Taylor-Robinson

Background Deprivation is associated with poorer growth, worse lung function and shorter life expectancy in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). While early growth is associated with lung function when first measured at around age 6, it is unclear whether improving early growth in the most disadvantaged children would reduce inequalities in lung function. Methods We used data from children born 2000-2010 and followed up to 2016 in the UK CF Registry. To estimate the association between deprivation and lung function at around age six, and the causal contribution of early weight trajectories, we extended the mediation analysis approach based on interventional disparity effects to the setting of a longitudinally measured mediator. We adjusted for baseline confounding by sex, birthyear and genotype and accounted for time-varying intermediate confounding by lung infection. Results 853 children were included in the study, including 165 and 172 children from the least and most deprived population quintiles, respectively. The average difference in lung function between the least and most deprived quintile of children, was 4.51 percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (95% CI: 1.08-7.93). We estimated this would be reduced to 3.97 percentage points (95% CI: 0.57-7.38) if early weight trajectories in the most deprived children were shifted to the distribution observed in the least disadvantaged children. Conclusion Socio-economic conditions are strongly associated with lung function for children with CF which we estimated would only be marginally reduced if early weight trajectories could be improved for the most disadvantaged children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Airín D. Martínez ◽  
Evelyn Mercado ◽  
Marielena Barbieri ◽  
Su Yeong Kim ◽  
Douglas A. Granger

A growing body of research is documenting how racial and ethnic populations embody social inequalities throughout the life course. Some scholars recommend the integration of biospecimens representing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurological and endocrinological processes, and inflammation to capture the embodiment of inequality. However, in comparison to other racial and ethnic groups, there has been little research examining how Hispanic/Latinx persons embody racial and ethnic discrimination, much less resulting from institutional and structural racism. We provide a rationale for expanding biobehavioral research examining the physiological consequences of racism among Latinx persons. We identify gaps and make recommendations for a future research agenda in which biobehavioral research can expand knowledge about chronic disease inequities among Latinx populations and inform behavioral and institutional interventions. We end by cautioning readers to approach the recommendations in this article as a call to expand the embodiment of racism research to include the diverse Latinx population as the United States addresses racial inequity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Olaf von dem Knesebeck ◽  
Sarah Koens ◽  
Ingmar Schäfer ◽  
Annette Strauß ◽  
Jens Klein

Background: Knowledge and beliefs about health and health care are part of the general concept of health literacy. Studies demonstrated that large parts of the population report inadequate health literacy. There are only few studies specifically addressing public knowledge and beliefs about emergency care. We examine magnitude and social variations of public knowledge about emergency care in Germany.Methods: Analyses make use of a telephone survey conducted in Hamburg, Germany. Random sample consisted of 1,207 adult respondents. We asked whether the respondents know various emergency care services. Moreover, capabilities of dealing with an emergency case were assessed. Sex, age, education, and migration background were introduced as predictors into regression models.Results: 98% of the respondents stated to know the rescue service, while 74% knew the medical on call service and 49% were aware of an emergency practice nearby. About 71% of the interviewees said it was easy for them to find out whom to turn to in a case of a medical emergency. Fewer respondents found it easy to evaluate when to use emergency medical services and to evaluate whether a health problem is a medical emergency. Knowledge and capabilities were positively associated with education and negatively related to migration background.Conclusions: This study indicates a lack of public knowledge about emergency care and social inequalities in public knowledge according to education and migration status. Findings suggest that interventions are needed to improve public knowledge and that considering social inequalities should be a basic principle for such interventions.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262192
Nathalie Bajos ◽  
Alexis Spire ◽  
Léna Silberzan ◽  

Equal Access to the COVID-19 vaccine for all remains a major public health issue. The current study compared the prevalence of vaccination reluctance in general and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and social and health factors associated with intentions to receive the vaccine. A random socio-epidemiological population-based survey was conducted in France in November 2020, in which 85,855 adults participants were included in this study. We used logistic regressions to study being "not at all in favor" to vaccination in general, and being "certainly not" willing to get vaccinated against Covid-19. Our analysis highlighted a gendered reluctance toward vaccination in general but even more so regarding vaccination against COVID-19 (OR = 1.88 (95% CI: 1.79–1.97)). We also found that people at the bottom of the social hierarchy, in terms of level of education, financial resources, were more likely to refuse the COVID-19 vaccine (from OR = 1.22 (95% CI:1.10–1.35) for respondents without diploma to OR = 0.52 (95% CI:0.47–0.57) for High school +5 or more years level). People from the French overseas departments, immigrants and descendants of immigrants, were all more reluctant to the Covid-19 vaccine (first-generation Africa/Asia immigrants OR = 1.16 (95% CI:1.04–1.30)) versus OR = 2.19 (95% CI:1.96–2.43) for the majority population). Finally, our analysis showed that those who reported not trusting the government were more likely to be Covid-19 vaccine-reluctant (OR = 3.29 (95% CI: 3.13–3.45)). Specific campaigns should be thought beforehand to reach women and people at the bottom of the social hierarchy to avoid furthering social inequalities in terms of morbidity and mortality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (4) ◽  
pp. 198
Richard Angelo Leonardo-Loayza

Resumen: El artículo aborda “El cobrador” de Rubem Fonseca. Se pretende demostrar que este relato evidencia la materialidad del malestar de los grupos subalternos, ante la exclusión que experimentan por parte de los grupos de poder en Brasil. Lo interesante de este texto no estriba sencillamente en el reclamo y la búsqueda de igualdad, sino en elaborar una ética que tiene como fundamento la venganza y la rapiña, sustentadas en una promesa incumplida: la repartición equitativa de los bienes (materiales y simbólicos). Asimismo, se desea probar que este cuento denuncia como falsa la imagen de un Brasil en armonía social y presenta, por el contrario, un país sesgado por la violencia, en el que los marginales ya no están dispuestos a seguir soportando más las desigualdades sociales. De otro lado, también se sostiene que este texto muestra la emergencia de un sujeto excluido, pero entendido como un exceso propio del capitalismo tardío, un sujeto perverso y violento.Palabras clave: Rubem Fonseca; “El cobrador”; capitalismo tardío; violencia; perversiónAbstract: The article analyzes “El cobrador”, by Rubem Fonseca. It is intended to show that this story evidences the materiality of the discomfort of subordinate groups, in the face of the exclusion they experience from power groups in Brazil. What is interesting about this text does not simply lie in the claim and the search for equality, but in elaborating an ethic that is based on revenge and robbery, supported by an unfulfilled promise: the equitable distribution of goods (material and symbolic). Likewise, we want to prove that this story denounces as false the image of a Brazil in social harmony and presents, on the contrary, a country biased by violence, in which the marginalized are no longer willing to continue to endure social inequalities. On the other hand, it is also argued that this text shows the emergence of an excluded subject, but understood as an excess typical of late capitalism, a perverse and violent subject, a product of the demands to which contemporary society invites and, at the same time, demands to be an integral part.Keywords: Rubem Fonseca; “El cobrador”; late capitalism; violence; perversion.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Maria José Sá ◽  
Sandro Serpa

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 (either through its direct effects by the disease it causes or the measures taken in an attempt to control its spread) had, and still has, a profound effect at several levels beyond the medical, such as the economic and social, political, scientific, psychological, educational, legal and religious levels, among others. However, studies demonstrate that this influence has not been the same for all due to old inequalities and also the emergence of new inequalities. In this letter to the Editor, the authors discuss some of the contributions of the Social Sciences to the understanding of social inequalities in this new post-COVID-19 “normal” through the mobilization of relevant literature and also their experience in analysing COVID-19 with the eyes of the Social Sciences, notwithstanding their plurality. The results of this analysis allow concluding that the Social Sciences can make a very relevant contribution – in an interdisciplinary way – to the understanding of this phenomenon of the relationship between COVID-19 and inequalities based on socioeconomic factors with the aim of increasing social cohesion and social justice.   Received: 4 October 2021 / Accepted: 11 November 2021 / Published: 3 January 2022

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