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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Yiding Zhang ◽  
Xiao Wang ◽  
Nian Liu ◽  
Chuan Shi

Heterogeneous information network (HIN) embedding, aiming to project HIN into a low-dimensional space, has attracted considerable research attention. Most of the existing HIN embedding methods focus on preserving the inherent network structure and semantic correlations in Euclidean spaces. However, one fundamental problem is whether the Euclidean spaces are the intrinsic spaces of HIN? Recent researches find the complex network with hyperbolic geometry can naturally reflect some properties, e.g., hierarchical and power-law structure. In this article, we make an effort toward embedding HIN in hyperbolic spaces. We analyze the structures of three HINs and discover some properties, e.g., the power-law distribution, also exist in HINs. Therefore, we propose a novel HIN embedding model HHNE. Specifically, to capture the structure and semantic relations between nodes, HHNE employs the meta-path guided random walk to sample the sequences for each node. Then HHNE exploits the hyperbolic distance as the proximity measurement. We also derive an effective optimization strategy to update the hyperbolic embeddings iteratively. Since HHNE optimizes different relations in a single space, we further propose the extended model HHNE++. HHNE++ models different relations in different spaces, which enables it to learn complex interactions in HINs. The optimization strategy of HHNE++ is also derived to update the parameters of HHNE++ in a principle manner. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed models.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Huiyuan Zhu ◽  
Dexi Bi ◽  
Youhua Zhang ◽  
Cheng Kong ◽  
Jiahao Du ◽  

AbstractThe ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and very-low-carbohydrate diet regimen that mimics the metabolism of the fasting state to induce the production of ketone bodies. The KD has long been established as a remarkably successful dietary approach for the treatment of intractable epilepsy and has increasingly garnered research attention rapidly in the past decade, subject to emerging evidence of the promising therapeutic potential of the KD for various diseases, besides epilepsy, from obesity to malignancies. In this review, we summarize the experimental and/or clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety of the KD in different diseases, and discuss the possible mechanisms of action based on recent advances in understanding the influence of the KD at the cellular and molecular levels. We emphasize that the KD may function through multiple mechanisms, which remain to be further elucidated. The challenges and future directions for the clinical implementation of the KD in the treatment of a spectrum of diseases have been discussed. We suggest that, with encouraging evidence of therapeutic effects and increasing insights into the mechanisms of action, randomized controlled trials should be conducted to elucidate a foundation for the clinical use of the KD.

Autism ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 136236132110689
Jessica Brian ◽  
Irene Drmic ◽  
Caroline Roncadin ◽  
Erin Dowds ◽  
Chantelle Shaver ◽  

Recent efforts have focused on developing and evaluating early intervention for toddlers with probable or emerging autism spectrum disorder. Parent-mediated approaches have gained traction, with mounting evidence of efficacy, but a research-to-practice gap exists, and community effectiveness remains to be firmly established. We report outcomes of a parent-mediated toddler intervention delivered through a research-community partnership, using a community-partnered participatory framework. Data were available for 179 of 183 toddler-parent dyads receiving Social ABCs parent coaching (mean toddler age: 25.18 months; range, 14–34 months). Of these, 89.4% completed the 12-week program and 70.6% returned for 3-month follow-up assessment. Parents attained implementation fidelity exceeding 75%, and toddlers made gains on proximal and distal measures of social communication. Parent fidelity was associated with toddlers’ responsivity at week 12, and responsivity predicted later language gains and reduced autism spectrum disorder symptoms. The roles of child, family, and system factors are discussed. Community delivery of an evidence-based parent-mediated intervention for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder is feasible and effective. Given resource efficiencies associated with parent-mediated approaches, findings bolster current efforts to promote earlier and more widespread access to intervention at the first signs of developmental concern. Lay abstract In an effort to increase access to intervention as early as possible for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder or signs thereof, many researchers have developed interventions that can be delivered by parents in their own homes. These parent-mediated approaches have gained a lot of research attention in recent years and have been found to be helpful in terms of parent and toddler learning. Several studies have used a rigorous research design (a randomized controlled trial) to show that parent-mediated intervention can work under ideal well-controlled conditions. To build on this evidence, we also need to examine whether parent-mediated interventions can be taught well through community service providers and delivered in more “real-world” conditions. This study used a research-community partnership to provide a parent-mediated intervention (called the Social ABCs) to 179 families (mean toddler age was 25 months; ranging from 14 to 34 months). Almost 90% of the families completed the 12-week program and 70% returned for a follow-up assessment 3 months later. Analyses showed that parents learned the strategies that were designed to help them support their toddlers’ development. Also, toddlers made gains in their language, communication, and social skills. Importantly, parents’ use of the strategies was related to toddlers’ skill gains, suggesting that the use of the strategies made a difference for the toddlers. Findings support the use of parent-mediated intervention in this very young age group and suggest that such intervention approaches should be made available for community delivery.

2022 ◽  
Emily Banwell ◽  
Terry Hanley ◽  
Santiago De Ossorno Garcia ◽  
Charlotte Mindel ◽  
Thomas Kayll ◽  

BACKGROUND Young people are increasingly going online to seek out web-based support for their mental health and wellbeing. Peer support forums are popular with this age group, with young individuals valuing the fact that they are available 24/7, providing a safe and anonymous space for exploration. Currently, little systematic evaluation of the helpfulness of such groups in providing support has been conducted. OBJECTIVE This study examines the helpfulness of the support offered within web-based peer support forums for young people. It specifically investigates the self-reported user-ratings of helpfulness reported through the completion of a developing experience measure. The ratings are used to consider the further development of the measure and to reflect upon the overall helpfulness of the forums as indicated by the reported scores. METHODS The study makes use of routinely collected practice-based outcome data from online mental health forums for young people. These forums are hosted by the UK based web-based therapy and support service, A cross-sectional design has been employed to explore the outcomes that have been reported by those accessing the forums using a Peer Online Community Experience Measure (POCEM). To consider the helpfulness in general, a total of 23,443 completed POCEMs from the 2020 calendar year were used. A second dataset of 17,137 completed POCEMs from the same year was used to consider whether other indicators, such as the time of day of the post, had an impact upon the helpfulness rating. RESULTS Female users between the ages of 11 and 16 predominantly completed the POCEM. This is in keeping with the majority of those using the service. 74.6% of the scores on the POCEM indicated the individuals found the posts helpful, and there was some indication that males were more likely to report obtaining intrapersonal support, whilst females obtained interpersonal support. Further, the POCEM scores reflected the internal consistency of the measure and provided an insight into the way that young people made use of the peer support resource. For instance, posts were rated more helpful if individuals spent a longer time reading them, and the topics discussed changed throughout the day with more mental health issues being discussed later at night. CONCLUSIONS The results appear to demonstrate that overall, the young people involved in this study found web-based peer support helpful. They indicate that that peer support can provide an important strand of care within a supportive mental health ecosystem, particularly during time periods when in-person support is typically closed. However, caution is needed when interpreting the results of this study. Whilst such services are incredibly well used, they have received little research attention to date. As such, further investigation into what constitutes helpful and unhelpful peer support is needed.

Rebecca McLaughlan ◽  
Kieran Richards ◽  
Ruby Lipson-Smith ◽  
Anna Collins ◽  
Jennifer Philip

Objective: To contribute staff perspectives on the design of palliative care facilities to better align with the philosophy of palliative care, in support of patient, family, and staff well-being. Background: The receipt of palliative care differs from other inpatient experiences owing to its distinct philosophy of care, longer lengths of stay, a greater presence of family members, and more frequent end-of-life events. While research regarding the optimal design of palliative care environments recognizes these differences, this knowledge has been slow to exert change on the guidelines and procurement processes that determine the design solutions possible within these settings. Sustained research attention is required. Methods: An online survey, comprising a series of open-ended questions, elicited the perceptions of palliative care staff regarding the relationship between the physical environment and the distinct philosophy of palliative care. Results: Responses from 89 Australian-based palliative care professionals confirmed the high value that staff place on environments that offer privacy, homeliness, safety, and access to gardens to assist the delivery of optimum care. Conclusions: Our findings illustrate that the implications of privacy and homeliness extend far beyond the patient room and that homeliness is about more than an aesthetic of comfort. This highlights a broader capacity for design to better support the philosophy of palliative care. Importantly, the data reveal a key relationship between staff well-being and the environments in which they work; environments that are unable to match the quality of care that staff aspire to deliver can engender frustration and distress.

Donghai Wu ◽  
Bingling He ◽  
Yuanyuan Wang ◽  
Peng Lv ◽  
Dongwei Ma ◽  

Abstract Due to the excellent activity, selectivity, and stability, atomically dispersed metal catalysts with well-defined structures have attracted intensive research attention. As the extension of single-atom catalyst (SAC), double-atom catalyst (DAC) has recently emerged as a research focus. Compared with SAC, the higher metal loading, more complicated and flexible active site, easily tunable electronic structure, and the synergetic effect between two metal atoms could provide DACs with better catalytic performance for a wide range of catalytic reactions. This review aims to summarize the recent advance in theoretical research on DACs for diverse energy-related electrocatalytic reactions. It starts with a brief introduction to DACs. Then an overview of the main experimental synthesis strategies of DACs is provided. Emphatically, the catalytic performance together with the underlying mechanism of the different electrocatalytic reactions, including nitrogen reduction reaction, carbon dioxide reduction reaction, oxygen reduction reaction, and oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions, are highlighted by discussing how the outstanding attributes mentioned above affect the reaction pathway, catalytic activity, and product selectivity. Finally, the opportunities and challenges for the development of DACs are prospected to shed fresh light on the rational design of more efficient catalysts at the atomic scale in the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Yun (Yvonne) Yang ◽  
Yoon Koh

Purpose In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had a devastating impact on global health care and the economy. The restaurant industry has been especially hit hard by the statewide “stay-at-home” orders. To get back on track, many of these businesses need capital. A new and effective form of fundraising for business startups is crowdfunding (CF). However, there has been little research on the pandemic impact on CF. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the pandemic-related impact on restaurant CF. Design/methodology/approach This study extracted all 2,686 restaurant CF projects in the USA from the Kickstarter platform from April 2010 to January 2021. By conducting descriptive analyses and multiple logistic regression models, this study examined the pandemic impact on CF success. Findings This study finds that, while controlling the effects of other determinants, businesses in the midst of the pandemic are more likely to be successfully funded than businesses unaffected by the pandemic. Findings also reveal that restaurant startups lowered their funding goals and posted more updates/comments/pledge levels during the pandemic, which made projects more likely to be selected as a “Project We Love” and increased the odds of funding success. However, mentioning COVID-19-related information or locating projects in “red zones” are not found to have any significant direct or moderating impact on the funding success. Research limitations/implications This study pioneers the research topic restaurant CF and attempts to raise the research attention of small- and medium-sized enterprises and entrepreneurial financing. Using quantitative methods, it provides a new perspective on pandemic-impact research. Social exchange theory is extended to the context of reward-based CF under crisis. Finally, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first investigation of the possible moderating effect of project location on the relationship between restaurant CF characteristics and success. Practical implications The findings of this study suggest restaurateurs to be confident about the fundraising of their startup business through reward-based CF, even when located within so-called pandemic red zones, and perform appropriate communication strategies while using the reward-based CF. Originality/value This study is one of the earliest to examine the main and moderating effects of the pandemic-related factors on business CF in the hospitality realm. The findings are reference for researchers and restaurateurs on fundraising in a crisis context.

Tao Wang ◽  
Oluwafunmilola Ola ◽  
Qijian Niu ◽  
Yuhao Lu ◽  
Malcom Frimpong Dapaah ◽  

Recently, electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) as well as oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) hinged on electrospun nanofiber composites have attracted wide research attention. Transition metal elements and heteroatomic doping are important methods used to enhance their catalytic performances. Lately, the construction of electrocatalysts based on metal-organic framework (MOF) electrospun nanofibers has become a research hotspot. In this work, bimetallic NixCoy-ZIF nanocrystals were synthesized in an aqueous solution, followed by NixCoy-ZIF/PAN electrospun nanofiber precursors, which were prepared by a simple electrospinning method. Bimetal (Ni-Co) porous carbon nanofiber catalysts doped with nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur elements were obtained at high-temperature carbonization treatment in different atmospheres (Ar, Air, and H2S), respectively. The morphological properties, structures, and composition were characterized by SEM, TEM, SAED, XRD, and XPS. Also, the specific surface area of materials and their pore size distribution was characterized by BET. Linear sweep voltammetry curves investigated catalyst performances towards oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. Importantly, Ni1Co2-ZIFs/PAN-Ar yielded the best ORR activity, whereas Ni1Co1-ZIFs/PAN-Air exhibited the best OER performance. This work provides significant guidance for the preparation and characterization of multi-doped porous carbon nanofibers carbonized in different atmospheres.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 136
Lina Han ◽  
Zemin Li ◽  
Yang Feng ◽  
Lijiang Wang ◽  
Bowen Li ◽  

Lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries stand out among many new batteries for their high energy density. However, the intermediate charge–discharge product dissolves easily into the electrolyte to produce a shuttle effect, which is a key factor limiting the rapid development of Li-S batteries. Among the various materials used to solve the challenges related to pure sulfur cathodes, biomass derived carbon materials are getting wider research attention. In this work, we report on the fabrication of cathode materials for Li-S batteries based on composites of sulfur and biomass-derived porous ramie carbon (RC), which are coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). RC can not only adsorb polysulfide in its pores, but also provide conductive channels. At the same time, the MWCNTs coating further reduces the dissolution of polysulfides into the electrolyte and weakens the shuttle effect. The sulfur loading rate of RC is 66.3 wt.%. As a result, the initial discharge capacity of the battery is 1325.6 mAh·g−1 at 0.1 C long cycle, and it can still maintain 812.5 mAh·g−1 after 500 cycles. This work proposes an effective double protection strategy for the development of advanced Li-S batteries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Xuanping Qin ◽  
Wei Liang ◽  
Zhimin Liu ◽  
Minghu Liu ◽  
Carol C. Baskin ◽  

AbstractSeed dispersal has received much research attention. The plant canopy can intercept diaspores, but the effect of the plant canopy (the aboveground portion of a plant consisting of branches and leaves) on dispersal distance has not been explored empirically. To determine the effect of plant canopy on seed dispersal distance, a comparison of diaspores falling through open air and through plant canopy was made in a wind tunnel using three wind speeds and diaspores with various traits. Compared with diaspores falling through open air, the dispersal distance of diaspores falling through plant canopy was decreased or increased, depending on wind speed and diaspore traits. When falling through a plant canopy, dispersal distance of diaspores with thorns or those without appendages was promoted at low wind speed (2 m s−1), while that of diaspores with low wing loading (0.5 mg mm−2) and terminal velocity (2.5 m s−1) was promoted by relatively high (6 m s−1) wind speed. A plant canopy could increase seed dispersal distance, which may be due to the complicated updraft generated by canopy. The effect of maternal plants on seed dispersal regulates the distribution pattern and the species composition of the community.

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