Infectious Diseases
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Wayne Dimech

Historically, the detection of antibodies against infectious disease agents was achieved using test systems that utilized biological functions such as neutralization, complement fixation, hemagglutination, or visualization of binding of antibodies to specific antigens, using testing doubling dilutions of the patient sample to determine an endpoint. These test systems have since been replaced by automated platforms, many of which have been integrated into general medical pathology.

2021 ◽  
Vol 218 (9) ◽  
Matae Ahn ◽  
Lin-Fa Wang

Bats are attracting the greatest attention recently as a putative reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. However, less known to the public, bats also have several unique traits of high value to human health. The lessons we learn from bats can potentially help us fight many human diseases, including infection, aging, and cancer.

Malú Grave ◽  
Alex Viguerie ◽  
Gabriel F. Barros ◽  
Alessandro Reali ◽  
Alvaro L. G. A. Coutinho

AbstractThe outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 has led to a surge in interest in the mathematical modeling of infectious diseases. Such models are usually defined as compartmental models, in which the population under study is divided into compartments based on qualitative characteristics, with different assumptions about the nature and rate of transfer across compartments. Though most commonly formulated as ordinary differential equation models, in which the compartments depend only on time, recent works have also focused on partial differential equation (PDE) models, incorporating the variation of an epidemic in space. Such research on PDE models within a Susceptible, Infected, Exposed, Recovered, and Deceased framework has led to promising results in reproducing COVID-19 contagion dynamics. In this paper, we assess the robustness of this modeling framework by considering different geometries over more extended periods than in other similar studies. We first validate our code by reproducing previously shown results for Lombardy, Italy. We then focus on the U.S. state of Georgia and on the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, one of the most impacted areas in the world. Our results show good agreement with real-world epidemiological data in both time and space for all regions across major areas and across three different continents, suggesting that the modeling approach is both valid and robust.

Nidhi Joshi ◽  
K.B Shah ◽  
Arpita Chatterjee ◽  
Radha Mangukiya ◽  
B.P Panda

Background: The word miasm means an infection. Hippocrates was the first who use the term "miasm" which has its origins in the Greek word for taint or fault. He anticipated that certain infectious diseases were transmitted to humans by air and water tainted by miasms. Hahnemann thought that the life power is infected by certain factors and this infection creates the disease. Dr. Hahnemann has recognized three special forms which he has designated as PSORA, SYCOSIS AND SYPHILIS. Which are recognized as ‘Miasm’ Objectives: The objective of the study is to understand the Expression of Sycosis miasm in Today’s Era. Methods: This Prospective study includes 50 cases that were randomly selected which had predominantly sycotic expression irrespective of age, sex and religion. The symptoms in the case were analyzed for the sycosis expressions. Investigation was carried out as and when required as per the case. The remedy was selected on the basis of totality of symptoms. The remedies were used in various potencies with repetition of doses as per the requirement of the case. The Homoeopathic remedies were selected from Standard Homoeopathic Pharmacy, Response was analyzed into 3 criteria: Mild Improvement, Moderate Improvement, Status quo, Left the treatment. Results: 50 cases of sycosis expression, both the genders of different age and different family background were analyzed and examined for response the homeopathic treatment. Expression of sycosis miasm was observed more in 31-40 years of age group. In general, sycosis predominantly seen in Male 26 cases. The common mental expression which was easily found out was dominating nature and desire for company and most peculiar was anger, which was expressed in different-different ways e.g., Anger at trifles, anger when contradicted, with abusive language or even throwing things when angry. In physical expression craving for such as sweets and spices. This miasm has aggravation at night in the research it is observed majority complaints of sycosis aggravated at night. The prominent disease conditions observed were hypertension 16%, renal calculi 12%, and diabetes mellitus 9%, hemorrhoids and hypothyroidism 7%, and gout, BPH, DNS, ovarian cyst, fibroids 5% respectively. The medicines selected on the totality of symptoms including miasmatic expression gave moderate improvement in 32% of cases where as mild improvement was observed in 40% of cases. The medicine found to be effective were anti-sycotic medicines like Medorrhinum, Nat. mur, Calc.carb, Apis etc. Lycopodium was prescribed in 20% of cases. Conclusion: From our study we would like to conclude that sycosis is flourishing miasm in many directions in this world. Along with it, it is most mischievous and difficult to conclude on mental aspect. Because we cannot grab sycotic person from their mind. Here I have made an effort to find out the common features of sycosis in this era which we can effortlessly find out and get from people. Keywords: miasm, sycosis

2021 ◽  
pp. 1935-1945
Eduardo Diaz ◽  
Anahi Hidalgo ◽  
Carla Villamarin ◽  
Gustavo Donoso ◽  
Veronica Barragan

Background and Aim: Ecuador is a hugely diverse country, but information on infectious diseases in local wild animals is scarce. The aim of this study was to screen the presence of blood parasites in free-ranging wild animals admitted to the Wildlife Hospital at Universidad San Francisco de Quito, from April 2012 to January 2019. Materials and Methods: We identified blood parasites by microscopic observation of blood smears from free-ranging wildlife species that attended the Wildlife Hospital of Universidad San Francisco de Quito (Ecuador) from April 2012 to January 2019. Results: The microscopic evaluations of animals as potential reservoirs for vector-borne zoonotic blood parasites revealed the presence of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon spp., microfilaria, Mycoplasma spp., and Trypanosoma spp. in previously unreported wildlife species. In addition, we performed a systematic review to understand the current knowledge gaps in the context of these findings. Conclusion: Our data contribute to the knowledge of blood parasites in wildlife from Ecuador. Furthermore, the potential transmission of these parasites to humans and domestic animals, current anthropogenic environmental changes in the region, and the lack of information on this suggest the importance of our results and warrant further investigations on infectious diseases in animals and humans and their relationship with environmental health as key domains of the One Health concept.

Luana da S. M. Forezi ◽  
Acácio S. de Souza ◽  
Carolina G. S. Lima ◽  
Amanda A. Borges ◽  
Patricia G. Ferreira ◽  

: Naphthoquinones are important molecules belonging to the general class of quinones, and many of these compounds have become drugs that are in the pharmaceutical market for the treatment of several diseases. A special subclass of compounds is that of the bis(naphthoquinones), which have two linked naphthoquinone units. In the last few years, several synthetic approaches toward such valuable compounds have been described, as well as their evaluation against numerous important biological targets. In this review, we provide a thorough discussion on the various synthetic methods reported for the synthesis of bis(naphthoquinone) analogues, also highlighting the biological activities of these substances.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (7) ◽  
pp. e1009098
Kiesha Prem ◽  
Kevin van Zandvoort ◽  
Petra Klepac ◽  
Rosalind M. Eggo ◽  
Nicholas G. Davies ◽  

Mathematical models have played a key role in understanding the spread of directly-transmissible infectious diseases such as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as the effectiveness of public health responses. As the risk of contracting directly-transmitted infections depends on who interacts with whom, mathematical models often use contact matrices to characterise the spread of infectious pathogens. These contact matrices are usually generated from diary-based contact surveys. However, the majority of places in the world do not have representative empirical contact studies, so synthetic contact matrices have been constructed using more widely available setting-specific survey data on household, school, classroom, and workplace composition combined with empirical data on contact patterns in Europe. In 2017, the largest set of synthetic contact matrices to date were published for 152 geographical locations. In this study, we update these matrices with the most recent data and extend our analysis to 177 geographical locations. Due to the observed geographic differences within countries, we also quantify contact patterns in rural and urban settings where data is available. Further, we compare both the 2017 and 2020 synthetic matrices to out-of-sample empirically-constructed contact matrices, and explore the effects of using both the empirical and synthetic contact matrices when modelling physical distancing interventions for the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that the synthetic contact matrices show qualitative similarities to the contact patterns in the empirically-constructed contact matrices. Models parameterised with the empirical and synthetic matrices generated similar findings with few differences observed in age groups where the empirical matrices have missing or aggregated age groups. This finding means that synthetic contact matrices may be used in modelling outbreaks in settings for which empirical studies have yet to be conducted.

Gaurav Jaiswal ◽  
Rakesh Kumar Jha ◽  
Praful S. Patil

Introduction: 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19), a respiratory disease caused by a new corona virus (SARS corona virus 2, also known as novel corona virus) in China, has spread and attracted worldwide attention. The WHO declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a global public health emergency on January 30, 2020. Following the 2002 corona virus (SARS-Corona Virus) and the 2012 MERS Corona Virus, the virus SARS corona is the third most infectious disease and the largest corona virus that caused human outbreaks in the 20th century. Aim: To assess the Indians law that affects or supports the Indian citizen with present scenario of Pandemic. Conclusion: Coronavirus has called for a mixed response in India. The answer includes a host of regulations, guidelines, services, and administrative structures, as well as public and government warnings. As the demands of government action grow, the Passivence Sicknesses Act has become a topic of discussion. Instead of establishing a comprehensive health care system, the Pestilence Infections Act allows states to take special measures in response to serious infectious diseases. The law gives the public a broad mandate to participate in oppressive actions against citizens within this limited framework.

2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (7) ◽  
pp. 730-735
Inna V. Zaikina ◽  
Nataliya E. Komleva ◽  
Anatoly N. Mikerov

A healthy diet is a factor in maintaining and improving health, helping to reduce the risk of developing alimentary-dependent diseases. The article presents the causes of malnutrition, data on the actual deficiency of vitamins and minerals in the population of the Russian Federation. Insufficient content of essential micronutrients in the diet is accompanied by a decrease in the body’s adaptive capabilities, contributing to an increase in the risk of developing non-infectious diseases. The article provides information on the role of chronic low-level inflammation and oxidative stress in the development of noncommunicable diseases. Significant contributors are vitamin D, zinc and selenium, and their deficiencies are widespread. Scientific evidence supports the role of vitamin D, zinc, selenium in the development of non-infectious diseases. The review discusses the role of vitamin D in the development of cardiovascular disorders, discusses the dependence on iron and zinc, which has clinical diagnostic and therapeutic value in anaemia and associated pathological conditions. In addition, the article discusses selenium and zinc deficiencies with the risk of the coronary syndrome, stroke, cardiovascular disease and mortality from them. Despite conflicting data on the effectiveness of oral micronutrient supplementation to prevent and treat chronic noncommunicable diseases, healthcare providers should be informed about the consequences of micronutrient deficiencies and identify micronutrient deficiencies correct them. This is important in treatment and prevention activities for people at risk, especially in endemic disadvantaged regions. The literature search was carried out in the databases PubMed, CyberLeninka, e-library.

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