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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiao Wei ◽  
Hongbo Guo ◽  
Jingjing Yu ◽  
Xuelei He ◽  
Huangjian Yi ◽  
...  

Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) is a promising non-invasive optical imaging method with three-dimensional semiquantitative in vivo imaging capability. However, CLT itself relies on Cerenkov radiation, a low-intensity radiation, making CLT reconstruction more challenging than other imaging modalities. In order to solve the ill-posed inverse problem of CLT imaging, some numerical optimization or regularization methods need to be applied. However, in commonly used methods for solving inverse problems, parameter selection significantly influences the results. Therefore, this paper proposed a probabilistic energy distribution density region scaling (P-EDDRS) framework. In this framework, multiple reconstruction iterations are performed, and the Cerenkov source distribution of each reconstruction is treated as random variables. According to the spatial energy distribution density, the new region of interest (ROI) is solved. The size of the region required for the next operation was determined dynamically by combining the intensity characteristics. In addition, each reconstruction source distribution is given a probability weight value, and the prior probability in the subsequent reconstruction is refreshed. Last, all the reconstruction source distributions are weighted with the corresponding probability weights to get the final Cerenkov source distribution. To evaluate the performance of the P-EDDRS framework in CLT, this article performed numerical simulation, in vivo pseudotumor model mouse experiment, and breast cancer mouse experiment. Experimental results show that this reconstruction framework has better positioning accuracy and shape recovery ability and can optimize the reconstruction effect of multiple algorithms on CLT.


Author(s):  
Bin Wang ◽  
Yu-xiao Jin ◽  
Jia-li Dong ◽  
Hui-wen Xiao ◽  
Shu-qin Zhang ◽  
...  

Radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) tract toxicity halts radiotherapy and degrades the prognosis of cancer patients. Physical activity defined as “any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle that requires energy expenditure” is a beneficial lifestyle modification for health. Here, we investigate whether walking, a low-intensity form of exercise, could alleviate intestinal radiation injury. Short-term (15 days) walking protected against radiation-induced GI tract toxicity in both male and female mice, as judged by longer colons, denser intestinal villi, more goblet cells, and lower expression of inflammation-related genes in the small intestines. High-throughput sequencing and untargeted metabolomics analysis showed that walking restructured the gut microbiota configuration, such as elevated Akkermansia muciniphila, and reprogramed the gut metabolome of irradiated mice. Deletion of gut flora erased the radioprotection of walking, and the abdomen local irradiated recipients who received fecal microbiome from donors with walking treatment exhibited milder intestinal toxicity. Oral gavage of A. muciniphila mitigated the radiation-induced GI tract injury. Importantly, walking did not change the tumor growth after radiotherapy. Together, our findings provide novel insights into walking and underpin that walking is a safe and effective form to protect against GI syndrome of patients with radiotherapy without financial burden in a preclinical setting.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 4226
Author(s):  
Ning Zhang ◽  
Lin Sun ◽  
Zhendong Sun ◽  
Yu Qu

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) fire detection algorithm mostly relies on thermal infrared channels that possess fixed or context-sensitive thresholds. The main channel used for fire identification is the mid-infrared channel, which has relatively low temperature saturation. Therefore, when the high temperature of a fire in this channel is used for initial screening, the threshold is relatively high. Although screening results are tested at different levels, few small fires will be lost under these strict test conditions. However, crop burning fires often occur in East Asia at a small scale and relatively low temperature, such that their radiative characteristics cannot meet the global threshold. Here, we propose a new weighted fire test algorithm to accurately detect small-scale fires based on differences in the sensitivity of test conditions to fire. This method reduces the problem of small fires being ignored because they do not meet some test conditions. Moreover, the adaptive threshold suitable for small fires is selected by bubble sorting according to the radiation characteristics of small fires. Our results indicate that the improved algorithm is more sensitive to small fires, with accuracies of 53.85% in summer and 73.53% in winter, representing an 18.69% increase in accuracy and a 28.91% decline in error rate.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rinie Bajracharya ◽  
Esteban Cruz ◽  
Juergen Goetz ◽  
Rebecca M Nisbet

Tau-specific immunotherapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. However, targeting tau effectively remains a considerable challenge due to the restrictive nature of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which excludes 99.9% of peripherally administered antibodies. We have previously shown that the delivery of tau-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) with low-intensity scanning ultrasound in combination with intravenously injected microbubbles (SUS+MB) increases the passage of IgG antibodies into the brain. SUS+MB transiently opens tight junctions to allow paracellular transport, but also facilitates transcellular transport, particularly for larger cargoes. However, therapeutic efficacy after enhanced brain delivery has not been explored. To assess whether ultrasound-mediated delivery of tau-specific mAbs leads to an enhanced therapeutic response, K369I tau transgenic K3 mice were passively immunised once weekly for 12 weeks with a novel mAb, RNF5, in combination with SUS+MB. While none of the treatment arms improved behaviour or motor functions in these mice, we found that both RNF5 and SUS+MB treatments on their own reduced tau pathology, but, surprisingly, the combination of both (RNF5+SUS+MB) did not achieve an additive reduction in tau pathology. This was despite observing increased antibody penetration in the brain. Interestingly, a significant fraction of the antibody in the combination treatment was visualized in brain endothelial cells, suggesting that paracellular transport may not be the preferred uptake mechanism for RNF5. Taken altogether, more research is warranted to develop SUS+MB as a delivery modality for anti-tau antibodies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lin Luo ◽  
Naiqing Song ◽  
Hao Yang ◽  
JiaHong Huang ◽  
Ling Zhou ◽  
...  

Objective: To explore the effects of using RPE exercise intensity monitoring methods and 12-week mid- and low-intensity team aerobic training on anxiety, depression and sleep quality of depressed middle school students after the COVID-19 epidemic.Methods: All study participants were all from a boarding middle school in Chongqing, China. All study participants were screened by the self-rating depression scale and reached the diagnostic criteria for depression. The study subjects were divided into a control group (N = 35) and an exercise group (N = 34). The exercise group performed 30-min night aerobic running four times a week. Use the Borg 6–20 rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) as a monitoring tool for exercise intensity, and control the exercise intensity at RPE = 11–14. And the control group studied and lived normally. The experiment lasted 12 weeks in total. After the experiment, there were 34 people in the control group and 23 people in the exercise group. The subjects' anxiety, depression and Pittsburgh sleep quality were scored before and after the experiment.Results: After intervention, the depression index (p < 0.01) of the exercise group was significantly lower than that of the control group.Conclusion: Using the RPE exercise intensity monitoring method for 12 weeks of mid- and low-intensity team aerobic training can improve the depressive symptoms of depressed middle school students, and it is beneficial to improve the students' mental health.


Author(s):  
Robin J. Pakeman ◽  
Debbie A. Fielding

AbstractMany ecosystems are grazed by livestock or large, wild herbivores and exist as mosaics of different vegetation communities. Changing grazing could have an impact on heterogeneity as well as on composition. A long-term, large-scale grazing experiment that maintained existing low-intensity sheep grazing, tripled it, removed it and partially substituted sheep grazing by cattle grazing was set up on a mosaic of upland vegetation types. The impact of changing grazing regimes was assessed in terms of changes in temporal and spatial species and functional beta diversity. Removal of grazing had the highest impact on species replacement, whilst increased grazing was closest to maintaining the original species complement. Wet heath and Molina mire had the lowest turnover, but wet heath showed the highest changes in unidirectional abundance as it contained species capable of increasing in abundance in response to changing grazing intensity. Agrostis-Festuca and Nardus grasslands displayed the highest level of balanced species replacement reflecting their more dynamic vegetation. In functional terms, there was no clear separation of communities based on their grazing preference, all were relatively resistant to change but Nardus grassland was the most resistant to the removal of grazing. The increased offtake associated with increased grazing led to a degree of homogenisation as grazing tolerant species associated with preferred communities increased in the unpreferred ones. Decisions about grazing management of the uplands involve many trade-offs, and this study identified potential trade-offs between stability and homogenisation to add to existing ones on the biodiversity of different groups of species and on ecosystem services.


Author(s):  
Zhongmeng Lai ◽  
Weiran Shan ◽  
Jun Li ◽  
Jia Min ◽  
Xianzhang Zeng ◽  
...  

AbstractPostoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) affects the outcome of millions of patients each year. Aging is a risk factor for POCD. Here, we showed that surgery induced learning and memory dysfunction in adult mice. Transplantation of feces from surgery mice but not from control mice led to learning and memory impairment in non-surgery mice. Low intensity exercise improved learning and memory in surgery mice. Exercise attenuated surgery-induced neuroinflammation and decrease of gut microbiota diversity. These exercise effects were present in non-exercise mice receiving feces from exercise mice. Exercise reduced valeric acid, a gut microbiota product, in the blood. Valeric acid worsened neuroinflammation, learning and memory in exercise mice with surgery. The downstream effects of exercise included attenuating growth factor decrease, maintaining astrocytes in the A2 phenotypical form possibly via decreasing C3 signaling and improving neuroplasticity. Similar to these results from adult mice, exercise attenuated learning and memory impairment in old mice with surgery. Old mice receiving feces from old exercise mice had better learning and memory than those receiving control old mouse feces. Surgery increased blood valeric acid. Valeric acid blocked exercise effects on learning and memory in old surgery mice. Exercise stabilized gut microbiota, reduced neuroinflammation, attenuated growth factor decrease and preserved neuroplasticity in old mice with surgery. These results provide direct evidence that gut microbiota alteration contributes to POCD development. Valeric acid is a mediator for this effect and a potential target for brain health. Low intensity exercise stabilizes gut microbiota in the presence of insult, such as surgery.


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