Consumption Growth
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (5) ◽  
Beining Lu

Generation Z was born in 1995 -2009. Take the Chinese market as an example. According to CBNData data, China's generation Z expenses account for about 13% of the total national household expenses, and the consumption growth rate far exceeds that of other age groups. According to the White Paper on Generation Z Consumption Power, Generation Z's monthly disposable income reaches 3,501 yuan, much higher than China's per capita disposable income of 2,561 yuan. (Luna; Zhou Yize 2020) So it is very important to catch the consumer eye of Generation Z.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6829
Zbigniew Bohdanowicz ◽  
Beata Łopaciuk-Gonczaryk ◽  
Jarosław Kowalski ◽  
Cezary Biele

We examine the motivations behind the electrical energy conservation and smart management at households to verify whether we are observing an ecological breakthrough, or a mere continuation of the well-trodden consumption-growth path. We conducted an online survey in France, Spain, Italy, and Denmark (n = 3200) on the subject of electricity use and generation. We utilized a generalized structural equation model to simultaneously test the direct reasons behind different energy-use behaviors and intentions, as well as their motivating factors. Measures to conserve electrical energy and install renewable energy equipment are not solely driven by ecological concerns; a crucial role is played by openness to new technologies, which correlates with high financial status. Saving electrical energy and new-tech eagerness go hand-in-hand with attachment to consumption and comfort. Social environment is relevant, as it allows users to converse about electricity saving with friends, and to observe their habits. Individuals may aim not to consume less energy, but to enhance their standards of living by economizing energy to fund other purchases, which limits the reduction in carbon footprint. Increasing the popularity of energy-saving solutions, therefore, might prove insufficient in the face of environmental threats and the challenges of transforming the energy market.

2021 ◽  
Vol 68 (2) ◽  
pp. 20-37
Sami Oinonen ◽  
Matti Virén

The paper examines how indicators of the shadow economy correspond to the National Accounts values. More precisely, we focus on household accounts assuming that the shadow economy should be visible in the difference between household income and consumption, as household (disposable) income is grossly underreported. Household consumption seems therefore to be a more accurate indicator in this context, as most shadow economy income is eventually spent on consumption. This implies that household savings figures should be negatively related to the values of the shadow economy; consequently, if the values relating to the shadow economy are high, savings should be low, or even negative, and vice versa. We verify this hypothesis using European cross-country data covering the years 1991–2017 with the application of MIMIC model calculations as a point of reference. The estimation results lend very little support to the hypothesis assuming that the shadow economy depresses household savings, even though we can otherwise explain comparatively well the cross-country variation in household savings and consumption growth rates.

De Economist ◽  
2021 ◽  
Milena Dinkova ◽  
Adriaan Kalwij ◽  
Rob Alessie

AbstractThis paper examines the relationship between household consumption and financial literacy. The economic framework is a simple life-cycle model of consumption in which financial literacy affects the rate of return on assets. The theoretical predictions are that, for plausible values of the intertemporal elasticity of substitution, financial literacy is positively related to both the level of consumption and consumption growth. We empirically test these theoretical predictions with Dutch data from the LISS household panel. Our results provide evidence in favour of a positive association between non-durable consumption, and in particular food consumption, and financial literacy. No evidence is, however, found in favour of an association between consumption growth and financial literacy.

Peter Bielik ◽  
Martina Hanova ◽  
Renata Benda-Prokeinova

The aim of the paper is to explain beef consumption through the economic indicators and the prediction tendencies of beef consumption. There are countries like Slovakia that confirm the opposite trend despite the global trend of consumption growth. In terms of the ecosystems' sustainability, beef production should be adjusted accordingly, as in the case of Slovakia. We focus on the economic aspect of beef consumption from the perspective of sustainability. Commodity prices are considered to be a significant factor influencing consumption and the behaviour of beef consumers. Despite increasing income in Slovakia, consumption of beef covers only 30% of recommended doses in the year 2018. To achieve the objective of the research, we decided to use the calculation of price and income elasticity of food demand using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model to analyse meat consumption trends. The findings confirm that beef consumption will decline in Slovakia in the following years, and it will be progressively replaced by pork and poultry meat.

Toxins ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 627
Sarah C. Finch ◽  
Nicola G. Webb ◽  
Michael J. Boundy ◽  
D. Tim Harwood ◽  
John S. Munday ◽  

Regulatory limits for shellfish toxins are required to protect human health. Often these limits are set using only acute toxicity data, which is significant, as in some communities, shellfish makes up a large proportion of their daily diet and can be contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) for several months. In the current study, feeding protocols were developed to mimic human feeding behaviour and diets containing three dose rates of saxitoxin dihydrochloride (STX.2HCl) were fed to mice for 21 days. This yielded STX.2HCl dose rates of up to 730 µg/kg bw/day with no effects on food consumption, growth, blood pressure, heart rate, motor coordination, grip strength, blood chemistry, haematology, organ weights or tissue histology. Using the 100-fold safety factor to extrapolate from animals to humans yields a dose rate of 7.3 µg/kg bw/day, which is well above the current acute reference dose (ARfD) of 0.5 µg STX.2HCl eq/kg bw proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Furthermore, to reach the dose rate of 7.3 µg/kg bw, a 60 or 70 kg human would have to consume 540 or 630 g of shellfish contaminated with PSTs at the current regulatory limit (800 µg/kg shellfish flesh), respectively. The current regulatory limit for PSTs therefore seems appropriate.

2021 ◽  
Esther Gehrke ◽  
Christoph Kubitza

We analyze the link between agricultural productivity growth and fertility, using the oil palm boom in Indonesia as empirical setting. During the time period 1996 to 2016, we find consistently negative effects of the oil palm expansion on fertility. We explain this finding with rising farm profits, that led to consumption growth, the expansion of the non-agricultural sector, increasing returns to education and to higher school nrollment. Together these findings suggest that agricultural productivity growth can play an important role in accelerating the fertility transition, as long as the economic benefits are large enough to translate into local economic development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Bayesa Tolasa

In Ethiopia, chicken production plays an important role in providing human food consumption, growth of domestic products, and creating employment opportunities. Despite their importance, the production and reproduction performance of chickens in the country is under expectation owing to the gap between low productive indigenous and low adaptive ability of highly productive chicken breeds. By considering this, the present paper aims to deliver, synthesize, and summarize the compiled information on the current status of indigenous and highly productive chicken breeds. Currently, there are several highly productive chicken breeds available in Ethiopia. Among these, Rhode Island Red, Fayoumi, Potchefstroom Koekoek, Sasso, Bovan Brown, Issa Brown, and Leghorn are being kept under various husbandry systems. Besides, indigenous chicken ecotypes such as barley plumage color, red plumage color, white plumage color, and black plumage color have been characterized in the country. However, the average annual egg production of indigenous and highly productive chicken breeds did not exceed 60 and 250 eggs, respectively. On the other hand, the meat production ability of indigenous chickens is limited as cockerels and pullets may reach 1.5 and 1.05 kilogram live weight at 6 months of age, respectively. Concerning the husbandry system, a majority of owners supplied feed to chickens on the ground and water in plastic containers while scavenging is being the common feeding system in most parts of the country. Furthermore, the majority of the owners are using no separate housing system and treat their chickens traditionally. Thus, awareness should be emphasized on enhancing the improvement of chicken husbandry systems for better production and reproduction performance.

2021 ◽  
pp. 34-40
Guenter TIESS ◽  
Iryna SOKOLOVA ◽  

The paper analyzes the changes in commodity market distortions, competing land use types, raw material demand for development, and rapid diffusion of key enabling technologies meeting the requirements of constant, dynamic development of major European industries. The author gives the relationship between the dynamics for mineral resources consumption growth, and changes in the conditions of production of these resources. Contains a critical review of methods for predicting the mineral resources dependency, including an estimated forecasting method based on guidelines for the evaluation of needs for natural resources and their substitutes.    One of the principles is comprehensive and integrated resource recovery. In a nutshell, this new approach argues that any operation should disturb a mine site only once and extract all useful materials using an optimised integrated flowsheet. This principle also requires that all by-products and residues are (re)used and that by-products and tailings at the end of life to be ‘future-proofed’, i.e. they should retain their ability to continue to be of value into the distant future where technology/economy may make feasible their use.    It is noted that access to and affordability of mineral raw materials are crucial for the sound functioning of the EU’s economy. A new 2020 list of critical mineral raw materials is presented and ways to compensate for the CRM deficit are described in detail.    Separately noted that the mineral policy is needed to be meticulously treated to facilitate company investment security, streamline permitting and access to minerals in a line with the European Green Deal, the Circular Economy Action Plan, the Bioeconomy Strategy and the European Industrial Strategy. Concerning, the latest steps towards Europe economically resilient by a framework for raw materials and the Circular Economy – creation of European Raw Materials Alliance recognized as particularly effective.    Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management represented as a robust, fit-for-purpose international standard for the safer management of tailings storage facilities.    The argument is given that since the land issue is one of the most delicate in a densely populated areas heavily dependent on agriculture, housing, infrastructure or other nonmineral development, a fair and equitable distribution of land is important for a mineral perspective.    There is also the need for strategic and open network between political, industrial and local communities through the exchange of information to enhance knowledge, experience and skills between stakeholders. Social acceptance of that idea is a fundamental element that must be addressed to develop a confl ict-free area for mineral development activities.    The conclusions indicate that we would like to emphasize that the main task of today is to create an effective system for monitoring the movement of raw materials along the entire added-value chain. The ability to quickly identify and respond to challenges in mineral policy will provide leadership in EU strategic technologies and industries. This process has already started with the creation of the European Raw Materials Alliance ERMA. State institutions, businesses, scientific institutions, and civil society in the close dialogue are able to ensure sustainable development and security of civilization as a whole. 

2021 ◽  
Likai Chen ◽  
Ekaterina Smetanina ◽  
Wei Biao Wu

Abstract This paper presents a multiplicative nonstationary nonparametric regression model which allows for a broad class of nonstationary processes. We propose a three-step estimation procedure to uncover the conditional mean function and establish uniform convergence rates and asymptotic normality of our estimators. The new model can also be seen as a dimension-reduction technique for a general two-dimensional time-varying nonparametric regression model, which is especially useful in small samples and for estimating explicitly multiplicative structural models. We consider two applications: estimating a pricing equation for the US aggregate economy to model consumption growth, and estimating the shape of the monthly risk premium for S&P 500 Index data.

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