outdoor air
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2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 112071
Author(s):  
Iqbal M.I. Ismail ◽  
Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid ◽  
Nadeem Ali ◽  
Bothinah Abdullah Saeed Altaf ◽  
Muhammad Munir

Author(s):  
Daniel L Mendoza ◽  
Tabitha M Benney ◽  
Ryan Bares ◽  
Benjamin Fasoli ◽  
Corbin Anderson ◽  
...  

Every day around 93% of children under the age of 15 (1.8 billion children) breathe outdoor air that is so polluted it puts their health and development at serious risk. Due to the pandemic, however, ventilation of buildings using outdoor air has become an important safety technique to prevent the spread of COVID-19. With the mounting ev-idence suggesting that air pollution is impactful to human health and educational out-comes, this contradictory guidance may be problematic in schools with higher air pol-lution levels, but keeping kids COVID-19 free and in school to receive their education is now more pressing than ever. To understand if all schools in an urban area are ex-posed to similar outdoor air quality and if school infrastructure protects children equally indoors, we installed research grade sensors to observe PM2.5 concentrations in indoor and outdoor settings to understand how unequal exposure to indoor and out-door air pollution impacts indoor air quality among high- and low-income schools in Salt Lake City, Utah. Based on this approach, we found that during atmospheric inver-sions and dust events, there was a lag ranging between 35 to 73 minutes for the out-door PM2.5 concentrations to follow a similar temporal pattern as the indoor PM2.5. This lag has policy and health implications and may help to explain the rising concerns re-garding reduced educational outcomes related to air pollution in urban areas. These data and resulting analysis show that poor air quality may impact school settings, and the potential implications with respect to environmental inequality.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lukas Siebler ◽  
Maurizio Calandri ◽  
Torben Rathje ◽  
Konstantinos Stergiaropoulos

This study introduces a principle, which unifies two experimental methods for airborne indoor virus-transmissions adapted to several ventilation measures. A first-time comparison of mechanical/natural ventilation and air purifiers with regard to infection risks is achieved. Effortful computational fluid dynamics demand detailed boundary conditions for accurate calculations of indoor airflows, which are often unknown. Hence a suitable, simple and generalized experimental set up for identifying the spatial and temporal infection risk for different ventilation measures is required. A trace gas method is suitable for mechanical and natural ventilation with outdoor air exchange. For an accurate assessment of air purifiers based on filtration a surrogate particle method is appropriate. The release of a controlled rate of either trace gas or particles simulates an infectious person releasing virus material. Surrounding substance concentration measurements identify the neighborhood exposure. One key aspect of the study is to prove that the requirement of concordant results of both methods is fulfilled. This is the only way to ensure that the comparison of different ventilation measures described above is reliable. Two examples (a two person office, several classrooms) show how practical both methods are and how the principle is applicable for different types and sizes of rooms.


Author(s):  
Camila H. Alvarez

AbstractCommunities of color and poor neighborhoods are disproportionately exposed to more air pollution—a pattern known as environmental injustices. Environmental injustices increase susceptibility to negative health outcomes among residents in affected communities. The structural mechanisms distributing environmental injustices in the USA are understudied. Bridging the literatures on the social determinants of health and environmental justice highlights the importance of the environmental conditions for health inequalities and sheds light on the institutional mechanisms driving environmental health inequalities. Employing a critical quantitative methods approach, we use data from an innovative state racism index to argue that systematic racialized inequalities in areas from housing to employment increase outdoor airborne environmental health risks in neighborhoods. Results of a multilevel analysis in over 65,000 census tracts demonstrate that tracts in states with higher levels of state-level Black–white gaps report greater environmental health risk exposure to outdoor air pollution. The state racism index explains four-to-ten percent of county- and state-level variation in carcinogenic risk and noncarcinogenic respiratory system risks from outdoor air toxics. The findings suggest that the disproportional exposure across communities is tied to systematic inequalities in environmental regulation and other structural elements such as housing and incarceration. Structural racism is an environmental justice issue.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1313-1333
Author(s):  
Meryeme Boumahdi ◽  
Chaker El Amrani ◽  
Siegfried Denys

In the present work, multiphysics modeling was used to investigate the feasibility of a photocatalysis-based outdoor air purifying solution that could be used in high polluted streets, especially street canyons. The article focuses on the use of a semi-active photocatalysis in the surfaces of the street as a solution to remove anthropogenic pollutants from the air. The solution is based on lamellae arranged horizontally on the wall of the street, coated with a photocatalyst (TiO2), lightened with UV light, with a dimension of 8 cm × 48 cm × 1 m. Fans were used in the system to create airflow. A high purification percentage was obtained. An artificial neural network (ANN) was used to predict the optimal purification method based on previous simulations, to design purification strategies considering the energy cost. The ANN was used to forecast the amount of purified with a feed-forward neural network and a backpropagation algorithm to train the model.


2022 ◽  
pp. 118955
Author(s):  
Samuel Stamp ◽  
Esfand Burman ◽  
Lia Chatzidiakou ◽  
Elizabeth Cooper ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Manisha Sarkar ◽  
Sujit Das ◽  
Randeep Rakwal ◽  
Ganesh Kumar Agrawal ◽  
Abhijit Sarkar

2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Robert J. Laumbach ◽  
Kevin R. Cromar

Unhealthy levels of air pollution are breathed by billions of people worldwide, and air pollution is the leading environmental cause of death and disability globally. Efforts to reduce air pollution at its many sources have had limited success, and in many areas of the world, poor air quality continues to worsen. Personal interventions to reduce exposure to air pollution include avoiding sources, staying indoors, filtering indoor air, using face masks, and limiting physical activity when and where air pollution levels are elevated. The effectiveness of these interventions varies widely with circumstances and conditions of use. Compared with upstream reduction or control of emissions, personal interventions place burdens and risk of adverse unintended consequences on individuals. We review evidence regarding the balance of benefits and potential harms of personal interventions for reducing exposure to outdoor air pollution, which merit careful consideration before making public health recommendations with regard to who should use personal interventions and where, when, and how they should be used. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 43 is April 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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