intensity modulated radiation therapy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yaru Pang ◽  
Hui Wang ◽  
He Li

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been used for high-accurate physical dose distribution sculpture and employed to modulate different dose levels into Gross Tumor Volume (GTV), Clinical Target Volume (CTV) and Planning Target Volume (PTV). GTV, CTV and PTV can be prescribed at different dose levels, however, there is an emphasis that their dose distributions need to be uniform, despite the fact that most types of tumour are heterogeneous. With traditional radiomics and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, we can identify biological target volume from functional images against conventional GTV derived from anatomical imaging. Functional imaging, such as multi parameter MRI and PET can be used to implement dose painting, which allows us to achieve dose escalation by increasing doses in certain areas that are therapy-resistant in the GTV and reducing doses in less aggressive areas. In this review, we firstly discuss several quantitative functional imaging techniques including PET-CT and multi-parameter MRI. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental comparisons for dose painting by contours (DPBC) and dose painting by numbers (DPBN), along with outcome analysis after dose painting are provided. The state-of-the-art AI-based biomarker diagnosis techniques is reviewed. Finally, we conclude major challenges and future directions in AI-based biomarkers to improve cancer diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment.

Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Kanako Nakatsu ◽  
Takahiro Kishi ◽  
Junko Kusano ◽  
Yasuyuki Hiratsuka ◽  
Takashi Ishigaki

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Saori Tatsuno ◽  
Hiroshi Doi ◽  
Wataru Okada ◽  
Eri Inoue ◽  
Kiyoshi Nakamatsu ◽  

AbstractThe risk factors for severe radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with lung cancer who undergo rotating gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or helical tomotherapy (HT) are poorly understood. Fifty-two patients who received rotating gantry IMRT for locally advanced lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. In total, 31 and 21 patients received VMAT and HT, respectively. The median follow-up duration was 14 months (range, 5.2–33.6). Twenty (38%) and eight (15%) patients developed grade ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 RP, respectively. In multivariate analysis, lung V5 ≥ 40% was associated with grade ≥ 2 RP (P = 0.02), and past medical history of pneumonectomy and total lung volume ≤ 3260 cc were independently associated with grade ≥ 3 RP (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). Rotating gantry IMRT was feasible and safe in patients with lung cancer undergoing definitive radiotherapy. Reducing lung V5 may decrease the risk of symptomatic RP, and care should be taken to avoid severe RP after radiotherapy in patients with a past medical history of pneumonectomy and small total lung volume.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 159
Guillermo Cabrera-Guerrero ◽  
Carolina Lagos

In intensity-modulated radiation therapy, treatment planners aim to irradiate the tumour according to a medical prescription while sparing surrounding organs at risk as much as possible. Although this problem is inherently a multi-objective optimisation (MO) problem, most of the models in the literature are single-objective ones. For this reason, a large number of single-objective algorithms have been proposed in the literature to solve such single-objective models rather than multi-objective ones. Further, a difficulty that one has to face when solving the MO version of the problem is that the algorithms take too long before converging to a set of (approximately) non-dominated points. In this paper, we propose and compare three different strategies, namely random PLS (rPLS), judgement-function-guided PLS (jPLS) and neighbour-first PLS (nPLS), to accelerate a previously proposed Pareto local search (PLS) algorithm to solve the beam angle selection problem in IMRT. A distinctive feature of these strategies when compared to the PLS algorithms in the literature is that they do not evaluate their entire neighbourhood before performing the dominance analysis. The rPLS algorithm randomly chooses the next non-dominated solution in the archive and it is used as a baseline for the other implemented algorithms. The jPLS algorithm first chooses the non-dominated solution in the archive that has the best objective function value. Finally, the nPLS algorithm first chooses the solutions that are within the neighbourhood of the current solution. All these strategies prevent us from evaluating a large set of BACs, without any major impairment in the obtained solutions’ quality. We apply our algorithms to a prostate case and compare the obtained results to those obtained by the PLS from the literature. The results show that algorithms proposed in this paper reach a similar performance than PLS and require fewer function evaluations.

Kathryn Tringale ◽  
Dana Casey ◽  
Gregory Niyazov ◽  
Jessica Lavery ◽  
Chaya Moskowitz ◽  

Background It is unclear how intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) impacts long-term risk of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in childhood cancer patients. Procedure Patients aged 10 years, many solid SMNs after IMRT in childhood cancer survivors develop in the high dose region. These data serve as a foundation for comparison with other modalities of radiation treatment (e.g., proton therapy).

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4(Suppl.)) ◽  
pp. 1514
Siham Sabah Abdullah

Each Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) plan needs to be tested and verified before any treatment to check its quality. Octavius 4D-1500 phantom detector is a modern and qualified device for quality assurance procedure. This study aims to compare the common dosimetric criteria 3%/3 mm with 2%/2 mm for H&N plans for the IMRT technique. Twenty-five patients with head and neck (H&N) tumor were with 6MV x-ray photon beam using Monaco 5.1 treatment planning software and exported to Elekta synergy linear accelerator then tested for pretreatment verification study using Octavius 4D-1500 phantom detector. The difference between planned and measured dose were assessed by using local and global gamma index (GI) analysis method at threshold 10%. The DD/DTA criteria are performed with 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm. A significant difference is shown between the measured and calculated point dose for the treatment plans. A comparison made between the gamma passing rate between the 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm shows a significant difference for local and global which shows that the 2%/2 mm are more sensitive to dose variation than 3%/3 mm. The total monitor unit (MU) shows a negative linear relationship with both criteria and %GP types. A significant correlation is shown between the total MU and global %GP at 2%/2 mm criterion. The conclusion of the study indicates that 2%/2 mm criterion is more sensitive to the dose distribution changes than the 3%/3 mm. The total number of monitor units should be taken into consideration during the planning of H&N tumors using the IMRT plans.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Zi-Kun Yu ◽  
Xu-Yin Chen ◽  
Si-Han Liu ◽  
You-Ping Liu ◽  
Rui You ◽  

ObjectiveAnti-EGFR Targeted agents were found to be capable of modulating the antitumor immunity in head and neck cancer and become more and more frequently used in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC). We aimed to explore whether adding concurrent chemotherapy influences the survival outcome of patients with stage II-IVb NPC treated with concurrent anti-EGFR agents and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and explore other prognostic factors for the patients.Materials and MethodsA total of 656 stage II-IVb NPC patients treated with concurrent anti-EGFR agents plus IMRT between January 2011 and November 2015 were enrolled. Firstly, from these patients, a well-balanced cohort of 302 patients who received concurrent chemotherapy was created by matching potential prognostic factors. Furthermore, for all 656 stage II-IVb NPC patients, univariate and multivariate analyses of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were conducted to identify prognostic factors and to confirm the findings from the matching cohort.ResultsCompared with concurrent anti-EGFR agents alone, combining concurrent cisplatin and anti-EGFR agents significantly improved the OS (5-year 94.7% versus 84.3%, P=0.012) and PFS (5-year 82.0% versus 71.7%, P=0.039) of NPC patients with more severe hematologic toxicity and mucositis. The independent prognostic factors identified by multivariate analysis of OS and PFS included concurrent chemotherapy, epstein-barr virus(EBV) status and clinical stage. Patients treated without induction chemotherapy (IC) may achieve more benefits from the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to concurrent anti-EGFR agents.ConclusionsFor stage II-IVb NPC patients treated with concurrent anti-EGFR agents, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy can significantly improve the survival outcome.

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